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Pros and Cons of Ethanol – Home Brewing

Home ethanol production is on the rise. With fuel prices topping out in excess of $ 7.00 a gallon in the past year, consumers are more frightened than ever before. Combine the history of these high fuel prices and add that stress to the high unemployment rates and workers start to feel as though they are in a lose, lose situation.

The cost of traditional fuel can be too much for the blue collar worker, but missing work is not an option with companies cutting employees all the time. Many families find themselves cutting food budgets in order to stay afloat and afford fuel costs. Biofuel can easily be produced at home, but the pros and cons of ethanol production can leave the consumer with more questions than answers.

The Good, The Bad and the Not So Ugly

Ethanol is easy and cheap to produce. This is a huge positive for the alternative fuel. However, many engines are not equipped to handle the biofuel and will shut down or require high priced repairs if the ethanol is run through the system.

Upgrading current vehicles and machines around the home can decrease the overall passion for biofuels. Even though the lower fuel costs are appealing, some people just do not want to risk losing their vehicles to save a couple of bucks here and there.

Another pro is that ethanol is a renewable fuel, right now. As long as there are feedstocks to crush, ferment and distill, there will be ethanol. Weighing the pros and cons of ethanol, however, is an important part of choosing whether to produce your own alternative fuel or wait for it to be mass produced.

Source by Yvonne Mustafelli

Types of Engineering

aerospace engineering

The aerospace engineers are concerned with the design, analysis, construction, testing and operation of flight vehicles, including aircraft, helicopters, rockets and spacecrafts. The course is based on the fundamentals of fluid dynamics, materials science, structural analysis, propulsion, aerospace design, automatic control and guidance, and development of computer software.

agriculture engineering

With increase in growth and associated industrial potential, Indian agriculture has now been accorded the status of an industry. The course on Agricultural and Food Engineering aims at producing engineering graduates to meet the requirement of technical manpower in development of farm machines, land and water resources management, agricultural production and manufacture of processed food. In order to meet the present demand of agricultural and food industries, the course has been suitably modified to include specialized training in design, development, testing and selection of tractors and farm implements, irrigation, drainage and watershed management using Remote Sensing and GIS; information technology, processing of food, fodder and fibre, utilization of biomass, byproducts and wastes in the production of biochemicals, fuels, manure and non-conventional energy. The course provides ample flexibility to the students for acquiring expertise in any of the three major areas of specialization, namely, Farm Power and Machinery, Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, and Food Process Engineering.


The goal of this program is to prepare the students, both in theory and practice, for leadership in the globally competitive fields of Life Science, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology industry, academia and research. The program has been developed to meet the increasing demand in these fields of industry and researcth. Students of this program would find unique opportunities of employment and research in the areas of biomedical engineering, drug design, bioinformatics, biotechnology, nano-biotechnology, genomics etc. The course is designed to introduce biology as an experimental science, in contrast to its commonly perceived notion as a descriptive subject. The students will also find the application of a wide range of techniques in physical, chemical and mathematical sciences for designing, executing and interpreting experiments in biology.

chemical engineering

Chemical engineers work in diverse fields like petroleum refining, fertilizer technology, processing of food and agricultural products, synthetic food, petrochemicals, synthetic fibres, coal and mineral based industries, and prevention and control of environmental pollution. Chemical engineering is concerned with the development and improvement of processes, design, construction, operation, management and safety of the plants for these processes and research in these areas.

civil engineering

A civil engineer is concerned with planning, analysis, design, construction and maintenance of a variety of facilities such as buildings, highways and railways, airports, waterways and canals, dams and power houses, water treatment and waste water disposal systems, environmental quality control , docks and harbours, bridges and tunnels. A civil engineer is also required to deal with critical problems of today such as disaster mitigation and management, constructing offshore structures for oil production,

chemical engineering

Some chemical engineers make designs and invent new processes. Some construct instruments and facilities. Some plan and operate facilities. Chemical engineers have helped develop atomic science, polymers, paper, dyes, drugs, plastics, fertilizers, foods, petrochemicals … pretty much everything. They devise ways to make products from raw materials and ways to convert one material into another useful form. Chemical engineers can make processes more cost effective or more environmentally friendly or more efficient. As you can see, a chemical engineer can find a niche in any scientific or engineering field.

mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineers design and develop everything you think of as a machine – from supersonic fighter jets to bicycles to toasters. And they influence the design of other products as well – shoes, light bulbs and even doors. Many mechanical engineers specialize in areas such as manufacturing, robotics, automotive / transportation and air conditioning. Others cross over into other disciplines, working on everything from artificial organs to the expanding field of nanotechnology. And some use their mechanical engineering degree as preparation for the practice of medicine and law. The mechanical engineer may design a component, a machine, a system or a process. Mechanical engineers will analyze their design using the principles of motion, energy, and force to insure the product functions safely, efficiently, reliably, and can be manufactured at a competitive cost.

electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is concerned with the basic forms of energy that run our world. Whether it's gas, hydro, turbine, fuel cell, solar, geothermal, or wind energy, electrical engineers deal with distributing these energies from their sources to our homes, factories, offices, hospitals, and schools. Electrical engineering also involves the exciting field of electronics and information technology. Do you have a cellular phone or a computer? Wireless communication and the Internet are just a few areas electrical engineering has helped flourish, by developing better phones, more powerful computers, and high-speed modems. As we enter the 21st century, the technology that surrounds us will continue to expand and electrical engineers are le way

electronics and communication engineering

Design, fabricate, maintain, supervise, and manufacture electronic equipment used in the entertainment media, in hospitals, in the computer industry, for communication and in defense. Electronics engineers work with devices that use extremely small amounts of power. They work with microprocessors, fibre optics, and in telecommunication, television, and radio.

production engineering

These deals with integrated design and efficient planning of the entire manufacturing system, which is becoming increasingly complex with the emergence of sophisticated, production methods and control systems. Job and Scope: Opportunities are available in public and private sector manufacturing organizations engaged in implementation, development and management of new production Process, information and control systems and computer controlled inspection, assembly and handling. Biomedical Engineering: Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of individuals.

materials engineering

New materials have been among the greatest achievements of every age and they have been central to the growth, prosperity, security, and quality of life of humans since the beginning of history. It is always new materials that open the door to new technologies, whether they are in civil, chemical, construction, nuclear, aeronautical, agricultural, mechanical, biomedical or electrical engineering.

Source by Alexa Fast

The History Of Industrial Engineering

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology defines industrial engineering as: the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.


The origins of industrial engineering can be traced back to many different sources. Fredrick Winslow Taylor is most often considered as the father of industrial engineering even though all his ideas where not original. Some of the preceding influences may have been Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill. All of their works provided classical liberal explanations for the successes and limitations of the Industrial Revolution.

Another major contributor to the field was Charles W. Babbage. a mathematics professor. One of his major contributions to the field was his book On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers in 1832. In this book he discusses many different topics dealing with manufacturing, a few of which will be extremely familiar to an IE. Babbage discusses the idea of the learning curve, the division of task and how learning is affected, and the effect of learning on the generation of waste.

In the late nineteenth century more developments where being made that would lead to the formalization of industrial engineering. Henry R. Towne stressed the economic aspect of an engineer’s job. Towne belonged to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) as did many other early American pioneers in this new field. The IE handbook says the, “ASME was the breeding ground for industrial engineering. Towne along with Fredrick A. Halsey worked on developing and presenting wage incentive plans to the ASME. It was out of these meetings that the Halsey plan of wage payment developed. The purpose was to increase the productivity of workers without negatively affecting the cost of production. The plan suggested that some of the gains be shared with the employees.. This is one early example of one profit sharing plan.

Henry L. Gantt belonged to the ASME and presented papers to the ASME on topics such as cost, selection of workers, training, good incentive plans, and scheduling of work. He is the originator of the Gantt chart, currently the most popular chart used in scheduling of work.

hat would Industrial Engineering be without mentioning Fredrick Winslow Taylor. Taylor is probably the best known of the pioneers in industrial engineering. His work, like others, covered topics such as the organization of work by management, worker selection, training, and additional compensation for those individuals that could meet the standard as developed by the company through his methods.

The Gilbreths are accredited with the development of time and motion studies. Frank Bunker Gilbreth and his wife Dr. Lillian M. Gilbreth worked on understanding fatigue, skill development, motion studies, as well as time studies. Lillian Gilbreth had a Ph.D. in psychology which helped in understanding the many people issues. One of the most significant things the Gilbrethss did was to classify the basic human motions into seventeen types, some effective and some non-effective. They labeled the table of classification therbligs. Effective therbligs are useful in accomplishing work and non-effective therbligs are not. Gilbreth concluded that the time to complete an effective therblig can be shortened but will be very hard to eliminate. On the other hand non-effective therbligs should be completely eliminated if possible.

In 1948, the American Institute for Industrial Engineers (AIIE), was opened for the first time and began to give a professional authenticity for the practicing engineers. Up to this time industrial engineers really had no specific place in the hierarchy of a company. The ASME was the only other society that required its members to have an engineering degree prior to the development of the AIIE.

What is the future for Industrial Engineers? With analytical methods and the advancing technologies for the computer, modeling complex production and service systems will become more and more an every day task.

Performing a motion study. Every job can be broken down into its’ fundamental work elements. The Gilbreth family found that there are seventeen of these motions. The time to complete each motion does not change. Jobs can be studied visually or through the assistance of a camera for micro-motion studies.

The environment for the workers also needs to be set up to promote efficiency of work. Tools should be placed in fixed locations to eliminate the search and selection therbligs. Work surfaces and chairs should be adjusted to the correct working heights to eliminate stress. Whenever possible, gravity feeders should be used to deliver parts to the correct location. The worker’s tools should be designed to eliminate multiple cuts. Adjustment handles should be designed to maximize the operator’s mechanical advantage.

Performing a time study. Without a standard the company will find it hard to estimate lead-time on their products. Times very greatly when the employee does not know what the expectation of company is. In order to correct this problem the IE will develop a fair standard expectation for each operation. It has been estimated that 12% of a company’s total cost comes from direct labor. Another 43% of cost comes from the material cost. The other 45% is spent in overhead. So the idea that the largest productivity gains can be felt on the floor does not hold up in this light. A good time study will take into account the unavoidable delays, fatigue, and to an extent, outside interferences. Time for wasteful steps, such as searching for tools, will not be included in the final standard. The expectation is that the workplace will be designed to accommodate the work and will be free from this type of waste.

Set-Up Times Set up time is the amount of time it takes to begin producing different parts on a machine. If set-up times remain large the company will operate with high levels of work in progress and finished goods tying up the companies valuable capital. Companies that fail to reduce their set-up times have a tendency to look sluggish in regards to their customers.

Cost An IE will generally be responsible for coming up with a cost analysis on the equipment purchase. There are a several ways of coming up with this. Lifehow long the machine is expected to last when developing the cost analysis.

Efficiency The traditional way of looking at efficiency was to keep the machine running at a 100% The idea was the cost of the machine could be spread out over the amount of time it was kept running. The higher the machines efficiency, time running / time available, the better the accounting numbers looked in regards to machine cost.

Material The IE is concerned with the delivery and flow of material throughout the plant, often the plant has evolved as the company has.

Lot size To allow the manufacturer to stay flexible the production lot sizes should be minimalized. This will only be economical after the reduction of machine set-ups have been achieved.

Inventory Levels Since inventory is capital that cannot be converted until finished and purchased by a consumer, it should be kept to a minimal. Inventories not only tie up capital but if the customer requests a change then the inventory runs the risk of becoming obsolete.

Quality The quality of the material can affect all parts of the system. Poor quality material often introduces excessive amounts of rework into each of the processes. A typical job for an IE would be to work with the quality department to set up a Quality Management system QMS.

Maintenance The amount of maintenance that the machine is going to require is a variable that must be considered. Another issue about maintenance is whether or not the staff on hand will need to be retrained.

Source by Thomas Bennett

Why Does Bitter Taste Bad? And How To Like Bitter Flavors, Like Tea And Coffee

Humans have five distinct flavor sensations: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and savory (or umami). These sensations are produced by five different classes of taste buds on the tongue. When we eat food, our experience of the food is some combination of these five flavors, and the aromas detected by our nose. Although it is possible for foods to be too sweet, too sour, or too salty, these other flavors usually taste good to most people, at least in moderation. Of the five flavors, bitter is the one that tends to taste bad.

This article explains why people are naturally averse to bitter foods, and also explains how you can learn to enjoy bitter foods. Some of the healthiest natural foods and drinks, such as cabbage-family plants and other vegetables, tea and herbal teas, and various herbs and spices, are naturally bitter. If you learn to appreciate bitter flavors, you open up the door to a wide variety of very healthful foods and drinks. But in order to do this, it helps to understand what the function of the bitter flavor is.

Bitter is a warning signal:

The sensation of bitter is an evolutionary adaptation to protect us against eating poisonous or harmful foods. When children taste a bitter food, their natural inclination is to spit it out and avoid it. Most naturally occurring poisons are extremely bitter. Because children do not know what foods are safe to eat, and because of their small size and body weight, they are extremely vulnerable to poisons in their environment. There are numerous wild berries which look an appetizing bright red color, but which are deadly poisonous. The strong bitter flavor of these berries protects children…if they do eat them when an adult is not looking, they will probably spit them out.

Adapting to bitter foods:

Although most natural poisons taste bitter to humans, there are many healthy, natural foods which are also bitter. For this reason, humans evolved an ability to develop an appreciation for bitter foods. This development happens both in general (a person becoming able to appreciate bitter flavors across the board) and in the case of specific types of food).

In the case of specific foods, a person presented with an unfamiliar food will tend to dislike it at first, especially if it is bitter. However, if that person eats a small amount of it, and feels well after eating it, the next time they encounter the food, it will taste a little better. They can then eat a little more, and then see how they feel. This natural mechanism allows people to discover new healthy foods that may taste bad initially, but are good for the body. As the person learns through exposing themselves to the food over time that the food makes them feel good, it will begin to taste a lot better to them.

This phenomenon is useful for parents to take note of. When feeding young children new foods, especially bitter-tasting vegetables like broccoli, it’s reasonable to just give them the tiniest bite. Keep in mind it may taste pretty awful to them initially. Then, a while later, try giving them the food again and have them eat a tiny bit more, gradually introducing them to the food.

Some bitter foods to experiment with appreciating:

Many green, leafy vegetables of the cabbage family, like collard greens, mustard greens, and watercress, are naturally bitter, and yet are among some of the healthiest vegetables out there. If you want to develop your appreciation for eating these sorts of foods, try introducing them to your diet slowly, a little bit at a time. The same goes for many spices and herbs used as seasonings.

Coffee and tea are two mainstay bitter beverages, widely consumed in western society. Tea in particular is a healthy beverage, much healthier than the soft drinks or sweetened drinks that many Americans drink in quantity. If you drink soft drinks or other sweetened drinks, or if you drink coffee or tea with milk or sugar, and you want to develop your taste for drinking straight black coffee, or straight black tea or green tea, try sipping some unsweetened tea or coffee every time you have the opportunity, before adding any milk or sugar. It may taste too bitter at first, but if you expose yourself to the flavor over time, you will begin to enjoy the bitter flavor more.

Source by Alex Zorach

The Potential Dangers of Genetically Modified Food

One of the latest controversies that we face today is genetically modified foods. The reason for this is due to the so-called equal amount of pros and cons that comes with this type of technology. On the one hand, many experts, and even some environmentalists, agree that humans and all living creatures on this earth can benefit greatly from genetically modified foods. Their argument for this type of reasoning is that by genetically modifying crops to naturally protect themselves against dangerous insects, it would mean that companies would refrain from using dangerous pesticides to do the same job. Because of this, the environment would be cleaner, thus making it friendlier for all creatures to live in.

On the other side of the coin, a large group of environmentalists, as well as experts in other fields, feels that genetically modified food is a potentially very dangerous technology. Their argument is that by changing the genes of plants in order to naturally act as a pesticide, this in turn could create a situation where many of these insects could become immune to this type of plant in the near future, similar to how mosquitoes became immune to DDT. Another fear is that by transferring genes between two species that are unrelated, this could also transfer allergens that can make people ill. In fact, it actually did occur in the year 2000. It was during this time when a particular variety of genetically modified corn, which is called StarLink, made its way into many of the other corn products. Originally, this corn was only meant to be used as cattle feed, as it showed certain qualities that could lead to allergens. These are just a few of the potential dangers that can occur from genetically modified foods.

Now before we continue, it is important to know that even before the scientists were able to manually modify the genes of many of these plants, farmers have a ready been doing this for many years. They would achieve this by using a process that is known as selective breeding. This type of process would allow them to create plans that were more desirable. A good example of this is the tomato. In the past, the tomato used to be a simple wild plant, but after enough selective breeding, this particular plant is now able to produce large, round and succulent tomatoes. However, while this argument does seem very effective in helping people to become more GM friendly, there is one part that has been left out of the equation. Yes, it is true that this is technically known as genetically modifying food. However, the one big difference is that this process is done in a very slow manner. Therefore, if something might go wrong, it would not be catastrophic.

The problem with genetic modified food nowadays is that scientists are able to change huge amounts of crops within a fraction of the time it would take in order to achieve this through selective breeding the natural way. Therefore, if anything does go wrong, the impact would also be devastating, and in most cases, it would probably be too late to fix this deadly mistake. Aside from this, we also have to ask ourselves what effects genetically modified foods could have on our own genes if we eat these products.

Source by Samantha Cleymore

How Fermentation Works

Hello. Today's article is going to be about the process of making alcohol, or fermentation. Fermentation is the process of turning sugars in hops, barley, and fruits into alcoholic drinks. Most people are curious about how this process words. Hopefully, I'll satisfy your curiosity in this article.

So what is fermentation? Fermentation is the breaking down of sugars by yeast to create alcohol. Fermentation is also used in nature. This is the process by which food rots. With alcohol fermentation though, instead of letting nature handle the process, humans have developed a controlled system. This usually occurs at a brewery, where yeast breaks down sugars until they are perfect for an alcoholic drink. When making different types of alcoholic drinks, the process is different.

For beers and lagers, hops and barley are combined with yeast, which then breaks down the sugars in the hops and barley. When yeast gets together with barley and hops, it finds the sugars inside of them and breaks them down. Also, for the different types of drinks in these categories, such as ale, the process is slightly different. During beer fermentation, the yeast is allowed to sink to the bottom. This is where the breaking down occurs. In ale, this process is reversed. The yeast floats to the top and starts breaking down sugars.

Wine is another drink that's made by the process of fermentation. Wine is made from crushed grapes that are then fermented. Grapes have tons of sugar in them, so it is a perfect environment for the yeast to do its job. Using a different grape changes the taste and color of the wine. Also, age plays more of a factor in wine than beers or lagers.

If you prefer a stronger drink, you should know that it's much more difficult to make these than wines or beers. This is due to the fact that there is too much alcohol in stronger drinks for the yeast to have any effect. The process starts out much the same, with the yeasts breaking down whatever the primary ingredient is. After this process, though, the end result is too watered down to be consumed. This is where distilling comes into play. Distilling is the process of heating an alcohol mixture to a boiling point. After the alcohol is boiling, it turns into a vapor, which is collected, cooled, and bottled. This is why strong alcoholic drinks taste so much more alcoholic than beer or wine.

This was just a basic overview of the process of fermentation. There are hundreds of different methods, and thousands of different beverages. However, the process is, at its heart, the same. Yeast breaks down sugars, and over time, converts sugars into an alcoholic drink. I hope you enjoyed this article on alcohol. Thanks!

Source by Michael S Collins

An Effective Oil Spill Clean Up Procedure

Oil spills are dangerous to the health of people and to the environment. The hazards include fumes, ignitions, asphyxiation, burns, water contamination, soil contamination and fire. In case of an oil spill make sure you know what to do. Immediate measures can help the oil spill from spreading. Be sure to have the presence of mind and follow this easy and effective oil spill clean up procedure.

Emergencies can be a confusing time. So to make it easier for you, just remember the 3 C’s of handling any accidental spills. These are control, contain, and clean up. Controlling the situation is to stop the cause or source of oil or slowing down the rate of release of oil. Containing the oil spill is minimizing the damage of the oil by preventing the spill from spreading to other areas. Clean up is the removal of the contaminants or oil itself from the affected area. The proper disposal of the materials used in the removal of the contamination is the final step in any clean up.

Objective: To effectively deal with spill accidents in order to prevent the adverse effects on the environment and on the individuals cleaning-up the contents of the spill.

Materials needed include:

-Stand by fire extinguishers

-Safety goggles

-Safety suit

-Safety mask

-Closed footwear

-Oil spill containment booms or socks.

-Absorbent pads or rolls

Procedures are as follows:

I. Oil Spill Control

1) Immediately take control of the situation.

2) If possible, stop the source of the leakage. It can be done by turning off a valve immediately or turning the container upright.

3) Search for causes of ignition. Put out any flames or turn off any machines that are working

4) Wear proper safety gear. Fumes can be inhaled, so make sure that your whole body is well protected.

5) Inform management immediately. If possible look for your supervisor. Ask for help.

II. Oil Spill Containment

1) If the oil or chemicals are near any type of drainage be sure to seal those first.

2) Surround the oil spill with oil spill booms or socks. Enclose the area of contamination.

3) Make sure that you have secured all exit points for the spillage.

III. Oil Spill Clean Up

1) Place the absorbent pads, pillows or rolls directly on the liquid.

2) Scatter the absorbent pads or rolls in the different areas to aid in the clean up.

3) Continue placing and replacing absorbent pads until the last drop of liquid is absorbed.

4) Get ready with your plastic bags for the soiled absorbents.

5) Place all the soiled absorbent pads inside the plastic bag.

6) Re-bag soiled absorbents to prevent leakage.

7) Then once all the absorbent pads are picked up, place the absorbent booms or socks inside the plastic bags.

8) Once you have finished with bagging everything place the bags inside a drum or a single container.

9) Label or tag the container.

10) Contact immediately your waste handler for proper disposal.

Do not hesitate to contact your local Fire Department if you have a large spill. Almost all Fire Departments are trained to help control and cleaning up all types of spills. Depending upon the location and size of the spill you may be required by law to report it to State and or Federal EPA officials.

Source by Travis Zdrazil

The Mental Health Debate

We have two sides of a debate: One says the mental health drugs are the only option and the other says the drugs cause mental health problems.

The drugs' side gives lots of false information to the public.

The other side gives lots of facts to disprove the falsities.

Yet, the public, largely, goes for the drugs' side. Despite the facts that show there is no basis in science for the use of the drugs and despite the facts that show the financial incentives for why people are being given drugs they do not need, the public goes for the "experts".

There is even a test to evidence how poor someone will metabolize the drug and yet the drugs' side is using that test to apparently adjust the drug dose or choice of drug so the person "has the best chance they can get".

When in reality the most important facts are that it is normal to experience anxiety, sadness, grief and an entire list of emotions in response to life's stresses. Additionally, if one wants to introduce science and medical evidence to the list of options, there are medical ailments that cause mental health problems and those ailments can be tested for and can be treated with non-mental health treatments that effectively cure the person of the cause for those symptoms and behaviors.

Why dose a drug; why test to see the metabolic rate for a drug that is not medically needed; why not simply find the medical ailment and cure it. Why live a life of mental health drugs and adverse consequences?

The subject of drugs (pharma) and genetics (the study of inherited characteristics) is called "Pharacogenomics".

Pharmacogenomics looks at how specific genetic characteristics influence medication response. The medical community has had a medical test, for years, which can evidence the inability of a person's body, to assimilate and utilize a drug.

Individual differences in drug metabolism are due to differences in the activity of enzymes (electron transfer agents in metabolic pathways) that metabolize the majority of drugs.

The enzymes are affected by and will produce varying behaviors by over 50 different genes and these genes and the varying behaviors have been studied and evidenced by medical science, yet the public is not made aware that this test exists. This includes testing for drugs that are prescribed for physical ailments as well as mental health symptoms

In addition to the 50 different genes that affect whether someone can utilize the drug, without having adverse reactions and potentially fatal consequences, there are a group of enzymes that have several different versions of each enzyme due to one's genetic make-up. There are, also, proteins, within the body that play a role in whether the body can break down and assimilate a drug or whether the drug will simply act as a toxin. This adds up to a lot of variables that determine whether an individual can predict that they are likely to experience the FDA adverse effect warnings of mania, psychosis, hallucinations, sudden death, paranoia, delusions, suicidal thoughts and homicidal thoughts and more.

The absorption, distribution, metabolism or elimination of the drug is all influenced by hereditary factors.

In summation, genetic variants can occur at any step in the drug metabolism pathway, in both the genes that make receptor proteins and the genes that make various drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Age, weight, race, known physical ailments, diet and other drugs someone might be taking can also affect drug response.

Source by Laurie Anspach

Finding Some Personal Meaning in All You Need is Love by the Beatles

I am sure that you have heard the song a thousand times, but you may have never seen a Prophetic Christian take apart the message in the song line by line and speak about the Eternal Meaning in this Song. Come and have a look at this songs lyrics in a possibly a new light today.


Italics Typeface The Lyrics of the song Normal Type My message.

There’s nothing you can do that can’t be done,

The essential thing I feel the band was saying here was that nothing is impossible for those that believe. Here are some guys that rocked the world and left many songs that even people 30 years later are singing.

Can you do anything?

The Beatles seem to think so! They say that you can do anything. Anything is possible.

Have you given up on your dreams?

Has life beaten you down?

Is your dream impossible?

Nothing you can sing that can’t be sung

You can sing anything you set your mind to. When two negatives are used in a sentence it means that the result is a positive. Another way of saying this is saying that as long as you can sing you can sing and release any song to the public.

Have you got a message in your heart?

Have you got something within you that can change the way people think? If you can write, you can write it.

If you can sing you can sing it.

If you are creative you can create it.

Do you know that the world is waiting on you? Sure God may birth your idea through someone else. Sure if you don’t do it someone else might do it. Sure you might create something and then someone else can create something better then you.

Do you think genetically modified foods put God the Creator out of sorts? Do you think man creating other strains of what occurs naturally in the world annoys God?

So too your idea with the possibility of someone else doing it. You need not let things stop you.

Nothing you can say, but you can learn how the play the game It’s easy.

Do you know that the boys that made up the famous Beatles were just ordinary folk that had a go at something they loved?

In this world we like to make idols. We like to have stars to look up to.

But are you less of a person if no one knows you?

They say that you can learn to play the game. If you can’t do it yet you can apply yourself and get it done. You can do anything and the world, even if it is just the world of the people that know you now, are waiting on you.

There’s nothing you can make that can’t be made.

Do you know that? Some things seem impossible to the world. Many people create something that does not exist in the world before they applied themselves to an idea. But go on, pursue that idea. Birth that dream.

No one you can save that can’t be saved.

Do you know some people have been dead ten minutes and come back to life because someone tried to revive them? Do you know many people have been dead longer? I know a pastor in India that raised his brother from the dead after 3 days and nights without food and water and with prayer.

There is the event that changed BC to AD. Jesus death is well recorded and the fact that He came back to life is another fact that the world likes to deny.

If a person can be saved from anything, do you think they can be saved if no one tries to save them?

Let’s say you have a daughter that was hurt in some way. She could have had a great upbringing and suddenly she is finding happiness in the wrong crowd and soon she is taking drugs. Later she is dating a drug dealer and has a serious drug habit. Do you think you can ever save her if you don’t put your whole life into it?

She may need ten good years in a bad lifestyle to see sense. Are you willing to still love her,show her real affection, love her, pray for her, and not condemn her?

You have to know that there is always hope for that wayward daughter whenever she is breathing?

So too with anyone!

This pastor whose brother had died had started many churches in India. He finally came to his town of birth to start a church in the hardest environment and his brother died. The local Hindus mocked him and when his brother died they had a party and were saying that he lost his life for turning from his traditional gods and becoming a Christian. The pastor knew his brother was happy in heaven, yet he knew that the freedom and power he had found in Jesus was better for his people in his home town, then the gods they had their faith in so he begged Jesus to bring his brother back to life as a mighty sign. Just like Jesus, the brother was raised on the 3rd day and in that day 40 people made a decision to follow Jesus. The pastor’s love for his people had brought the dead brother back to life.

Nothing you can do, but you can learn how to be you in time It’s easy.

You are not your father and you do not have to be like him. You are not your mother and you do not have to be her. You are not your friends and you don’t have to be them. You are not limited by the people in your company, you can be better then them all. You don’t have to be limited by anyone. You have to find you. You have to know what you are inside. You have to know what makes you tick. You have to reach down deep and find your essence. You are not your star sign. You are not just a loser that everyone has labeled you as. You can be anyone. You can be different to what people want you to be. You can be totally different to what all those that love you want you to be. You can break out of the mold people put you in.

You can be a new you. You can find out who you are. You can try new things. You can set your mind to new goals and new dreams. You can break the mold. You can create what you want to be and go for it.

The Beatles say that is easy!

Do you think God has a better future for you than you could imagine? Do you think God can see more potential in you then all those that love you?

Do you know Jesus was not believed in by the people closest to Him? Even when He was on top of His game and a mighty miracle worker He had a hard time doing miracles in His own home town because of the peoples lack of faith in Him!

Do you know He said this in the Bible: “A prophet is not without honor, except in his own home town and family?”

Like the Beatles Jesus used a double negative. He says that a true Prophet of God is worthy of much praise and adoration and honor by strangers for who he has become in life when he is in ministry. But when that prophet comes around people that know him best and his own family he is not held in the same high esteem.

Sometimes, though it is sad to know, you have to move away from people who know all your faults and bad habits and change those bad habits and glide over your faults and become a success in a strange town or another part of the country. Sometimes it’s the people who know us the best that can hold success away from us.

All you need is love All you need is love All you need is love, love Love is all you need

Do you know the human race was not created to live alone? Do you know that even people who do not believe in any god, still have a god of sorts? Some of the most passionate people in the world about their non belief in God are the atheists. Sometimes I wish the Christian world by in large would be as on fire for what they believe as some people that deny God exists.

I heard a practicing witch say something profound in a quote I read. It hurt me so much, the truth in it, that after I read it I fell into a six month serious depression. The witch said: “If the Christians are really right with what they teach and the people that do not place faith in Jesus and convert and live a life for Him and how He taught, really are going to burn for eternity in a place called Hell; then the Christians must be the most cold hearted unloving people I have ever met. For if this was the fate of every single person that did not convert and it was really true then the Christians of this world should be on every sidewalk on every bus and every train with placards and shouting and grabbing people by the arm and trying to convince people to be saved.”

The human world was created to love and know God and to love each other. Sure hate and power can be mighty motivators in creating weapons of mass destruction; however the creative power of love can not be compared to it. More can be done through the force of love than all the hate in the world.

The Beatles sang this chorus like a mantra. To do great things, to write great songs, to achieve great heights, to save people from anything, to become who you were destined to be, all you need is to love.

You need to love yourself.

You need to love others.

You need to seek out the greater good.

You can do great things in the world, if you just think of others. If you can get out of the look out for number one idea, and instead look out for others and do all that you do to improve the little world that you live in, then you might become so good at what you do, you might change the whole world.

The engineers that wrote the Google search engine program tried to share their ideas with many companies to back them financially and to partner with them. No one wanted to help them build the best search engine in the world. No one believed in them. So what did they do with no money and no support and no one believing that they could do it? They did it anyway and didn’t care about the money they were going to make from their creation. They had no idea how they were going to make money from the idea, they just knew that the world could do with a better search engine and they knew that one day when they had created the best search engine the money would come.

Aren’t you happy they did not give up on us?

Aren’t you glad they knew themselves and knew their idea had merit?

You might not do search on Google but over half the people that search use Google. In fact the only time I search on other search engines is when I am looking for one of my websites on them.

Google is the hardest search engine to have your website in the top ten positions in the world. I set my mind to it once. Now under the search words “personal prophecy” my site is in the number 1 spot in the world on Google.

And what is my site?

It is free. I do it out of my love for God and my love for people. And what got me to number 1 position? My love for teaching people in articles of which I had to write over 260 to get the number 1 position.

Why do I keep writing articles?

Because I love God and I love people, and I love to write and teach people things.

All you need is love people. That is all you need. All you need is love people and you can do great things in this world. At present 10,000 people a month read something I have to say online. I am very happy with that. I have had about $500 in donations in four years so far, and so I don’t do what I do for money.

There are many people that rocked the whole world and they did not do it for money.

You’ll be able to think of them if you put your mind to it.

The answer is folks:

Love, love, love Love, love, love Love, love, love

Plain and simple! Many people have heard this song 1000 times and never seen the full import of the words. I hope I have brought you some light so far. Let us continue.

There’s nothing you can know that cant be known.

If God does not want the world to know a thing, then no one in the world can know it. Yet when the time comes when the world is ready for a new idea, the whole world is given that idea by a person or a group of people.

Another way of saying it is that you can get no idea that works if that idea can’t be thought of ever. There are many people that have delusions and these ideas are floored, though in general society nothing is impossible to know. If the world is ready to know something, the idea comes to the world.

I have to take this opportunity to say apologize for mentioning God so much. I am not here trying to brain wash you. God is just my frame of reference. I don’t mean to offend any of you.

Nothing you can see that isn’t shown.

There is no place that you can see if there is no light to see it.

There is no creation that comes to earth without that idea being shown to man. Whether you call that the man’s own idea, or God’s idea, or any other source being credited for the idea, the idea first is seen in the mind’s eye.

Nothing that exists in today’s world, the seen world that is, was ever brought into being without being first seen in the mind of the creator.

Even the unseen supernatural world is seen in the mind’s eye. I have met God in heaven, I have met angels, I have met Jesus, and yet all of them are seen in my mind’s eye.

Sure the unseen world exists. Radio waves cannot be seen, but a man had to first know that they existed before they could be used and harnessed for mankind’s use today.

Nowhere you can be that isn’t where you’re meant to be It’s easy

This is a very powerful lyric. There are many who would argue with this line. Young children being abused by a parent with no strength or power to resist the abuse from the parent; can they be said to be where they are meant to be?

You see readers, for many years you might have let this line be sung over you, but have you ever seen it in this light?

Is all the good and bad that happen to us, meant to be?

When you are in a bad place in your spiritual life, is that where you are meant to be?

When you have no job, no car, no good hope of a good living, is that where you are meant to be?

When your wife has left you, you can’t see the children and you no longer have a family home that you live in, are you where you are meant to be?

Is life really one big lesson that we are meant to learn from?

Could it be that God has a reason why everything happens, the good and the bad?

Where the Beatles out of their mind to sing this lyric, or where they speaking a profound truth?

And if all the good and the bad is meant to be, is it all the world needs to know about to fix the woes it faces, is to really have more love?

Isn’t it fascinating that in John’s first Epistle in the Bible called 1 John, it says, “God is Love”

Does knowing the word Love to mean “God the Creator” change the meaning of what the Beatles sing in this chorus? Is what the world really needs, and what you really need to achieve your dream simply to have God in your life?

All you need is love All you need is love All you need is love, love Love is all you need All you need is love All you need is love All you need is love, love Love is all you need Love is all you need Love is all you need Love is all you need Love is all you need Love is all you need

Source by Matthew Robert Payne

Pharmaceutical Companies, Sugar and the Alzheimer’s Disease, Searching For the Cause of Alzheimer’s

What exactly is causing Alzheimer’s? We always hear or see ads for various medications that propose to aid in the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. But why is it we never hear anything relating to the cause of Alzheimer’s? I am beginning to think that we are being manipulated by Pharmaceutical Companies? I was told by someone in the medical profession that acceptable cholesterol levels were lowered so more cholesterol medicine could be sold. Is that really true? How much do we really know about the research and the long-term effects of medication that is prescribed to us? Medication to me always seems to be treating the symptoms and not the causes. For example, look at all the cold medications that are on the market shelves. There are medications for congestion, for coughs, for sore throat and headaches. Where is the medication to aid the cause, the virus? It seems that it takes more time to create multiple medications to treat multiple cold symptoms than to cure one virus. If they cured the virus, no need for medication, less and eventually no money. How many of us have become blasé about what is prescribed to us and don’t question what we are putting into our bodies?

On a recent quest for information regarding my Mother’s Alzheimer’s disease, I wanted to know what research was occurring to determine the cause and not just the symptoms of this disease since it is growing at an alarming rate. There are supposedly 4.5 million people in America with the disease and this number is expected to double within the next 5 years. To me, there has to be something in our environment or something that we are consuming that is causing this disease. What has increased to cause Alzheimer’s? I am trying to find the answer to that question by surveying some of our elderly population who still have their wits and are not showing any signs of Alzheimer’s. My questions relate to their diet, their environment, their cleaning supplies, and cookware, activities and education level. I am looking for the common thread that binds all these people who still remain intelligent and youthful in their minds. Some of my candidates are in their 80’s like my Mom.

Reviewing my Mom’s situation and examining what has increased over time for her, I keep on saying it is sugar. Desserts, sweets played a very big role in our diet growing up. Pies, cookies, cakes, ice cream, fudge, candy, etc., you name it, my Mom made it from scratch and we ate it every day. My Mom was the master baker. But just think hypothetically for a moment if it really is sugar and the impact it would have on the food industry. It wouldn’t be surprising if the food industry wanted to silence this knowledge. Look at all the products we consume that contain sugar. Sugar is added to our desserts, our cereals, our pasta sauces, our drinks, our sauces, ketchup, alcohol and much more. Our consumption of sugar has gotten out of control. There should be a warning label on sugar and sugar products similar to that which is on cigarettes. Is sugar addictive like cigarettes? Are we subtly being controlled by this substance? This product to me seems to be the only substance that we have increased exponentially in our diet. What is your guess or what do you think? White sugar is also whitened with bleach and processed with chemicals which may contribute to the cause or be the direct link, BINGO.

Recently I read in the news that two groups of people are at a higher risk of having Alzheimer’s. These two groups are people who have Diabetes and people who are pear shaped, i.e. fatter around the waist and butt area. What causes diabetes and pear shapes? SUGAR!!! Women are at a higher risk. What is a women’s weakness? SUGAR!!!

Well back to my quest to seek what type of research is being performed for the Alzheimer’s disease. For starters, I asked my Mom’s doctor if only drug companies conduct the research for all drugs and she said yes because they are the only entities with MONEY. If we work just on the symptoms, drug companies make more money selling more medications. It is BIG corporate business It is like jail, we need criminals to employ police, security guards, build facilities (contractors), purchase building supplies, employ maintenance staff, purchase food services, etc., and it is job security for the masses.

To further my research, I went to the Alzheimer’s Association because in my mind they should have the greatest source of information on understanding this disease. I met with the Director for the local chapter where my Mom is living. I asked the question, “What research is being done to determine the cause of the disease?” She could not answer this question but she provided me with a source to check. She said to visit their website and navigate to the library section and pose my question to the contact. I followed her instructions to a tee and following is the information I received, word for word, spelling for spelling:

“Library Question – Answer [Question #5738763]

Hi Kathryn, thank you for contacting the Alzheimer’s Association.

We don’t differentiate in our annual or financial reports, I’m afraid. I’ve never seen a figure for cause dollars compared to treatment dollars and I didn’t see one overall when I just checked. “

Is it just me, or don’t you think they should be tracking data especially if they are funding some of these research projects? Is everyone in it for the money? Everything seems to be just “Big Business” and getting richer from innocent people.

My Mom has seen approximately 10 Doctors in the last 2 years for her Alzheimer’s disease. Each doctor had paperwork to complete for my Mom, like insurance information and who is financially responsible for services, MONEY. Not one Doctor asked what does she eat, or what cleaning detergents was she exposed to during her lifetime or did she live near a factory, was she physically active or was she a scholar and an avid reader? Not one question was asked that would help determine CAUSE. They wanted to know about her memory, behavior, and sleeping pattern. The doctors she has seen during this period are not concentrated in just one geographical location but are in several areas, i.e. the Northeast, West Coast and Mid-West. We are talking doctors who practice at Dartmouth, WASHU and in Southern California. And Doctors who were educated from Harvard, Dartmouth, Berkley, Stanford, UCLA, etc.

My Mom is involved with a research trial program for a large pharmaceutical company who again is working on the symptoms and not cause. I don’t know about you, but I want to know what is causing it so I can stop eating it, breathing it or do something other than take a PILL or injection. I have created a survey that addresses some of the items that I have discussed in this article to determine the cause of Alzheimer’s.

Source by Kathryn D Alexander

CROs – A Brief History

Contract research organizations or CRO had steadily gained success and achieved a top position. With its successful foray into the pharma and biotechnology sector, it had translated into profits for investors. This all is now a thing of past and no longer prevails, the scene has completely changed.

What paved way for their winning streak, was outsourcing projects meant cutting costs for pharmaceutical companies; workforce and revenue could be re-directed towards other avenues and aided the research process. CRO's initiated researched, prepared reports at every stage, conducted detailed quality analysis and ensured that all was in sync with the rules and procedures laid down by FDA.

CRO's offer a wide range of services to the pharmaceutical companies; right from product planning like drug development, drug formulation, clinical research including conducting clinical trials, clinical research and other stages like Sample collection, medical writing services, preclinical, toxicology, and clinical laboratory services. Prepare extensive documentation required for the approval like Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA), or Biologic License Application (BLA). CRO's efficiently and more importantly cost-effectively handled everything.

However, from 2008, the trend changed and hiring services of Contract research organizations declined and came to a grinding halt. There were major layoffs across the pharmaceutical industry.

The guidance affected everything. Though the companies continued its pursuit of new drug discovery and developmental research, new obstacles like funding issues and patent problems harrowed the companies. The year 2008 also saw major cost cutting moves like employee lay offs, postponing projects to the next year, change the company focus from product development to later-stage drug development programs.

Owing to all this, the CRO's faced the flak and resulted in stock prices hitting an all time low and their downfall began. There is another side to it, sacking of employees from the pharmaceutical industry meant that more workforce ready to work for lower salaries was made available to the CRO's, but it also meant there was a constant pressure on the CRO's to survive and emerge as a successful venture.

The highlight and a point to be noted is rather than focusing on cost of human resources, companies need to ensure a quality of staff hired.
If the trend continues, it will eventually lead to many more issues and problems and will affect not only the economy but will also result in lesser research and development; the latter issue is more important as it addressed the health industry that is important and vital for any nation.

One more hassle is the struggle and danger awaiting the workers belonging to the clinical research sector and medical sectors is 'What next'? They have to explore different avenues to keep pace with the changing trends and situation or face lay-off and unemployment or work for lesser salary.

Source by Susan David Parker

How to Invest in Very Low Risk Stocks

Though investing in stocks is far riskier than other types of investment like savings, bonds, property, etc, it is a fact, at least historically, that shares have easily beaten returns from savings or property. So, the cliché: 'higher returns being more risky' is valid in certain instances.

While any kind of investment in stocks does carry some risk, there are methods of keeping risks to a minimum.

Build a Portfolio

This is the most reliable way to lower risk when purchasing stocks. Theoretically, more diversified a portfolio lower the risk becomes. It means, by raising the range of shares you hold, you can combat decline in values ​​of some stocks with hike in some others.

As the aim of a stock portfolio is to enhance its value, the aim is to invest in blue chips of different sectors. This will lower risk more as, downturn in one sector will be opposed by upturn in another.

A portfolio lets you hold shares in stocks that are very defensive and others that are more risky but with higher growth chances. Of course, many people opt for companies with a high dividend yield to form core of their portfolio.

Blue chips

Another method of buying low risk stocks is to buy blue chip companies with a history of rising profit and incomes every year. These companies have strong financial basics and can withstand adverse economic conditions.

Defensive stocks

The benefit of investing in defensive stocks is that they can combat economic downturns much better than companies in more advanced industries like technology as a reduction in consumer spending can adversely affect high tech companies more.

Eg, even in an economic downturn, these defensive stocks can show a higher value because apprehensive investors move from other sectors like technology, biotechnology, internet, etc.

Also, these companies may not see their incomes and profit eroded as they offer products and services that can withstand economic downturns.

Financial styles

One method of ensuring a company is comparatively low risk is to evaluate its finances (elementary data). Many good financial data providers allow access to companies' financial history for past number of years. This would let you understand trends in profitability and if the company is increasing its revenue regularly each year. You can also compare with other companies in the same sector for a better idea


Idea A of The investing in dividend stocks color : as a Low Shoes That is risk investment companies with high paying , dividends , are On Generally very stable, old Appearances companies with highly consistent levels of income every year.

Source by Paul Cris

All About Biotech Research

One of my friends, a former community college student at the school at the same time I was working there, has decided to go into biotech research. She is technologically savvy and at the same time is fascinated with and good at working with the environment, and hopes to make some important contributions to our area (Northern California). So what does it mean to do biotech research? What does it take to get into the field of biotechnology? And how much dough can you make?

Biotech research can involve anything in the life sciences, from "human health and computational disease mapping to crop and tree improvements," as those studies are done by students at the Biotech Research Center at Michigan Tech, from "forensics, [the] testing of biotoxins, and management of the nation's organ transplantation process "to" drug development, medical diagnostics, biomedical engineering, and environmental analysis, "such as those done at Virginia Biotechnology Research Park, or from biogenetic engineering, farming, or nutritional assessment and engineering to toxicology, biomedical imaging and engineering, or food, drug, and environmental technologies, as conducted by University of California Biotechnology Research and Education Program (UC BREP).

How much a person in biotech research makes depends on what funding the biotech research facilities are backed by. At the Biotech Research Center at Michigan Tech, for instance, funding is at $ 8.3 million, provided by such organizations as the US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institute of Health (NIH), and the US Drug Administration (USDA). At the same time, according to the US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, the biotech research engineer (as well as the biomedical engineer) make an average of $ 48,503 with a bachelor's degree and around $ 59,667 with a master's degree.

But will the jobs in biotech research be there when my friend and you finish your degrees? Well, again according to the US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, the projection for job growth in the field of biotech research in particular but biotechnological engineering in general looks good through 2014, with the growth "much faster than average. This, BLS asserts, will be attributed to the aging of the population, the increased focus on health issues, and the demand for "better medical biomedical engineers." Because of the heightened interest in biotech research and biomedicine, more degrees are granted in these fields / areas … and hopefully, more grants are awarded!

Source by Morgan Hamilton

Qualifications and Skills Required For Industrial Engineering Jobs

Job of Industrial Engineer

The estimation of production cost, creation of effective product design, development of production standards, revision of production schedules, delegation of responsibilities to the workers and completion of production within the given time frame are the major tasks executed by an engineer.

Industrial Engineer decides and monitors the quality control objectives, and resolves any sort of problem that occurs during the production process. His main focus is always on the efficient production and cost minimization. He also keeps an update of the project status, purchases, manufacturing and production processes. Also, the design, layout and draft of the equipments and materials are summarized by him.

Required Qualifications

Mechanical knowledge is one aspect without which a person can not realize the dream of making a career in industrial engineering. An engineering degree coupled with the knowledge of industrial production and technology is the foremost qualification required for a job of industrial engineer. A keen design sense, command on English language and computer knowledge are the other requirements to do the work of an industrial engineer.

A strong background of Mathematics is compulsory since the work involves the application of arithmetic, calculus, algebra, geometry and statistics. The job profile also demands a command on management and administration principles which are the basic tools for resource allocation, production and strategic planning, and; work coordination and delegation.

Skill Requirements

An ability to think logically and critically helps industrial engineers to weigh the various available options and take the best decision in favor of efficient production. They should also possess the active listening and fast reading skills to take the desired steps in flick of seconds. Quick decision making and excellent time management skills make the person doing industrial engineering jobs, quite resourceful.

Source by Simon Waker Haughtone

Cold Sore Symptoms – Amazing Facts About Your Cold Sores

Are you curious about cold sore symptoms? Want to know what to expect with cold sores, fever blisters or oral herpes outbreaks? In a minute you will for sure know what to expect from your cold sore symptoms.

Do you sometimes wonder if your cold sore symptoms are normal? Believe me, that is a common concern.

Right now I would like to share with you the most common cold sore symptoms. Quite likely your symptoms are similar. If not, then you may want to consult a medical professional about your cold sores.

Initial cold sore symptoms occur when you are first infected, and never again. These include sore throat, fever, headaches and lethargy. Many times it is mistaken for the flu. Seldom do you get cold sores, fever blisters or oral herpes during the initial infection.

After this, cold sores always appear as the main sign that the herpes simplex virus has become active. As long as the virus is dormant, you will not experience the following cold sore symptoms.

Here are the cold sore symptoms (also for fever blisters and oral herpes) in order of occurrence.


The first symptom of impending cold sores is almost undetectable. The area where the outbreak will appear starts to feel irritated. You may notice an itching or tingling sensation.

For some, there is a dry feeling that will make you want to use a lip balm.

You feel something is happening under the skin – and it is. The herpes simplex virus has become active, moved to the surface, and is in the process of entering the nerve cells there.

Applying something cold at this time, such as ice or a cold can of soda, will provide comfort. More importantly it could delay or stop the cold sore virus.


The outbreak area now swells up as the cells fill with new virus clones. You may notice some painful little bumps. These are usually hard and red looking.

At this time, you may get a slight fever and headache. Your lymph glands under the jaw will usually become swollen and painful – and remain so for the duration of the sore.


The actual open sore will now appear as millions of cells, full of new virus, burst open. Your sore will weep a clear fluid as your body tries frantically to wash away the virus.

This will be the most painful time for most people. Cold sores, fever blisters and oral herpes sores are built right on the end of the nerves.

And this will be the most contagious period for your cold sores. The outbreak area is absolutely teaming with herpes virus looking for a new home.


Your sore now is in the healing mode, and should start getting better from here on.

A yellowish crust forms over the sore. It is still painful to the touch. If the crust is not kept soft, it will crack when you move your mouth. This is quite painful and slows the healing process.

Keep it soft and pliable with olive oil.


The scab will last up to a week before it falls off, revealing new skin.

But, be cautious.

It will still be healing under the skin until the redness disappears. Herpes simplex virus is still present and you are still very contagious.

The swollen lymph glands should subside fast now.

This final healing period can be the most frustrating. It seems to drag on way too long – and you are feeling a lot better.

Keep in mind – you are still contagious and must still be careful because it can come back quickly.

These are the most common cold sore symptoms you can expect to see. Your symptoms may be slightly different. If they are way different, please see your health care professional.

Also, keep reading and searching. You do not have to suffer anymore. Discovered now are some wonderfully effective cold sore treatment options that will slow down – or completely stop – all your cold sore symptoms.

Source by Denny Bodoh

What is Genetically Modified Food?

An estimated 60 to 70 percent of all foods on supermarket shelves today contain genetically modified ingredients. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by the time you read this, 85 percent of the soybeans planted in the United States and up to 45 percent of the corn will be genetically engineered. It has been estimated that 70-75 percent of processed foods on supermarket shelves including soda, soup, crackers, condiments, baby food, pancakes, candy bars, and condiments contain genetically modified ingredients. That means if you are eating foods that contain vegetable oil, soy products like soy burgers, or any foods that are made with cornstarch, corn syrup, corn oil, or soy derivatives, there is a good chance that you are putting food that’s been genetically modified into your body.

The scary thing is that there’s no way to know for sure

The government has not implemented a regulations system that would require producers of GM food to tell consumers that a food has been genetically altered or that it contains GM ingredients. What’s more, under current law biotech companies don’t have to inform the FDA or perform human testing before introducing a new genetically engineered food product. As a result, GM foods are flooding the marketplaces and millions of unsuspecting consumers are purchasing and consuming unlabeled genetically modified foods. Don’t be one of them! See below for tips on how to avoid eating GM foods.

How are foods genetically modified? Genes can be likened to blueprints for each organism. Due to major advances in technology, scientists are now able to select genetic material from organisms such as plants, animals, or even microbes, and insert it into the permanent genetic code of another.

For example, a gene found in flounder that enables them to survive in cold water was transplanted into tomatoes so that they would become resistant to frost. Genes from soil bacterium are transferred into foods such as corn and canola so that they repel insects. Other examples of our tampering with Mother Nature include: Potatoes that contain bacteria genes, “super” pigs with human growth genes, fish with cattle growth genes, and thousands of other plants, animals, and insects.

These genetically modified creations are then being patented and released into the marketplace without having any idea about what the long term effects will have on the environment, ourselves, and our children. Several studies over the last decade reveal that genetically modified foods can pose serious health risks to humans, domesticated animals, wildlife and the environment. The effects on human can include: higher risks of toxicity, resistance to antibiotics, suppression of the immune system, and even cancer. The impact on the environment as a result of using GMO’s in agriculture could lead to contamination of non-genetically modified life forms and biological pollution which could completely through off Nature’s delicate balance.

The bottom line is: We need dozens of years of research before we start tampering with DNA because we don’t know what’s going to happen. How much do we know about genetics, anyway? DNA was just discovered fifty years ago. We need to seriously contemplate the implications of what tampering with Mother Nature could cost us. We could be destroying elements in our ecosystem permanently by introducing untested genetically modified foods and organisms. I suggest that you join me in the fight against genetically modified foods. The most powerful way to do that is NOT support GM products. Here are some tips on how to avoid these products.

How to avoid eating GMO foods:

Eat organic.

The Organic Food Production Act stipulates that food labeled organic cannot contain any genetically modified organisms.

Buy local. Shop at farmers’ markets where you can buy direct from local growers. Ask them how they treat their crops.

Stop eating processed foods. Many processed foods include derivatives of corn, soy, and canola, which more than likely come from genetically modified plants. Buy whole foods like fruits, vegetables, sprouts, and grasses instead.

Read Food Labels.

If ingredients come from corn, soy, or canola, put the food back on the shelf. Look for labels on foods that say, “This product does not contain genetically modified organisms.”

Get Involved.

Demand that proper labeling for genetically modified foods is required so people know what they are putting in their bodies.

The following foods listed below are currently being tested by the biotech industry in field trials in an attempt to create gene-altered varieties.

Fruits: Apples, Cherries, Cranberries, Grapefruit, Kiwi, Melons, Papayas, Pears, Persimmons, Pineapples, Plums, and Strawberries.

Vegetables: Bell peppers, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, corn, cucumber, lettuce, mustard, olives, onions, peas, potatoes, radishes, squash, sweet potatoes, cherry tomatoes, watercress

Dry Foods: Barley, beans, soybeans, coffee, lentils, oats, popcorn, rice, sugar, and wheat.

Nuts and Seeds: Flax, peanuts, sunflowers, walnuts.

Remember: Say NO to GMOs!

Source by David Wolfe

Food Processing Machinery – Industries Making Use of the Equipment

Food processing is an essential procedure in order to change raw ingredients into other forms to make it more useful for both humans and animals. The techniques may actually be employed at home. For larger productions though, such as those in food manufacturing industries, food processing machinery is considered an important tool to facilitate the process and provide the demands of customers.

The most common food processing methods are baking, deep-frying, mixing, boiling, broiling, grilling and steaming. At times, it may also comprise of methods such as liquefaction, fermentation, pasteurization, packaging, gasification and spray drying. Most industries making use of food processing machinery are enumerated as follows.


Cannery or canning is a food preservation process where food is processed first before it is placed inside an air-tight container. For smaller production, the process may be done at home. However, for several canned goods produced by big names in the industry, food processing machinery is important. Canning is completed through the use of other techniques such as freezing and vacuum treatments.


Rendering is a processing of food technique that transforms meat or animal remains to fatty-like substances such as lard. It is done using a slow heating process. While it is favored in industrial scales, the method may also be adapted at home. The extract comes from expired meats from grocery stores and butcher shop trimmings.

Meat packing industry

This industry is responsible not only in the meat packing business but the slaughtering and distribution of meat products that come from pigs, cattle, sheep and other forms of livestock. This type of business is geared in providing humans their daily consumption. At some points, however, rendering is already a part of this business.

Sugar industry

Sugar is a sweet-tasting substance that may be in the form of white or brown grains. This sweetener is usually extracted from sugarcane and though the process may be done manually, machine intervention is necessary. It is also one of the focal points of the food processing industry.

Other industries relying upon food processing machinery are flour milling and vegetable packing.

Any technique requiring bulk productions may not be possible without the help from such equipment. Bakeries also produce pastries and breads through the help of some of these tools. Dicers, mixers and bowl cutters are specific examples of this machinery. These machines promise to provide much ease and faster turnaround time for any of their users.

Source by Richard C. Milton

Using Biological and Gelling Agents on Oil Spills

Many different methods are used to deal with oil spills, including booms, skimmers, biological and gelling agents. Each has a function in cleanup and increasing the speed with which the waters and the environment can be returned to a pre-spill state.


Gelling Agents

These chemicals are known as solidifiers because they react with oil to form rubber-like solids. When there is a small spill, the chemicals can be applied by hand and left alone to combine. When there is a large spill, chemicals are applied to the oil spill, mixed in with the force of high pressure streams of water. Once the oil gels, it is removed from the water with nets, by suctioning it up, or skimming it off the surface. Sometimes, this gelled oil is mixed with fuel oil and is reused.


Gelling agents can be used in calm to moderately rough seas as the waves provide sufficient energy to mix the chemicals with the oil. To be successful, a large quantity of gelling agents must be applied – sometimes as much as three times the volume of the spill. If there is a very large oil spill of millions of gallons, it is impractical to store, move or apply the huge quantity of chemicals that are needed to gel the oil.


Biological Agents

These chemicals and organisms increase the rate of the natural biodegradation of oil. This is a process in which bacteria, fungi, and yeast break down complex compounds into simpler products to obtain nutrients and energy. The biodegradation of oil is a slow process which can occur very slowly, taking years to remove oil from the aquatic environment. The rapid removal of spilled oil from shorelines and wetlands is necessary to minimize the potential environmental damage to these sensitive habitats. 


Bioremediation technology can speed up the biodegradation process by adding materials like microorganisms or fertilizers to the environment. Two bioremediation techniques that are currently being used in the US for oil spill cleanups are seeding and fertilization.



This is also known as nutrient enrichment and is the process in which nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus are added to a contaminated environment, such as an oil spill. There are generally limited supplies of these nutrients in nature which controls the growth of the native microorganism population. When more nutrients are added, the native microorganisms rapidly increase, potentially increasing the rate of biodegradation of the spilled oil.



This is the addition of microorganisms to the native oil degrading population as some species of bacteria do not naturally exist there. The purpose is to increase the population of microorganisms that can biodegrade the oil spill.


There are other oil spill cleanup agents, all of which must be licensed. The licensing criteria are established on the level of toxicity that the agent imposes. The protocols for the use of these different oil spill cleanup agents (OSCA) are based on the sensitivity of the habitat in which the agent might be used.

Source by Andy Clark

In Vitro Fertilization Controversy

There are many different sides as far as in vitro fertilization. Some people find it morally and don right ethically wrong, however, for couples who suffer with infertility, this is the only way they have a shot at having a family of their own. For instance, in the Catholic religion, IVF is something that is not acceptable. Therefore, those who are Catholic, this is something that is not accepted as it separates marriage as well as the different prospective aspects. This medical procedure is considered a sin and also, any man who donates sperm is considered a sin.

While babies are created with the aid of this IVF procedure, there are several unborn children that come as a result of this treatment option. If couples choose to freeze their eggs, this is considered leaving unborn children to freeze in labs which have the feeling of them being manufactured and is like they weren’t produced by a woman’s body. These eggs were not created with love but fertility drugs. If a couple decides to not have any more cycles done, those eggs that were produced with these drugs or if the parents die, then these eggs are disposed of, which to some religions can be considered murder.

Another aspect of this in vitro fertilization controversy is that a woman has several eggs transferred to her uterus in hopes that one of the few eggs will result in a successful pregnancy. If there is more than one that results in a successful pregnancy, a woman has the choice to terminate one of the eggs if she does not want multiples. This is done by abortion which in other words is killing the unborn babies.

There are many cases where IVF has resulted in unborn babies and there have been disastrous consequences. There are some women who do IVF as a single woman and therefore are using donor sperm. This means they are technically having another man’s baby. If a woman then got married, that could be hard for a man to swallow especially in a religious home. This can often times lead to divorce. There are several disturbing aspects that come with in vitro fertilization. There has been some research that has shown any person that was born with the aid of an assisted reproductive procedure has a higher risk of marrying a family member that they don’t know about. If that happens, their children have increased risks f deformities and other illnesses.

Any baby born through way of IVF has increased risks to have illnesses later on in life. IVF has become acceptable by thousands of couples, but to many this is something that is not moral and is not accepted by God. The Catholics believe these fertility doctors are playing the role of God in an unacceptable manner. The Catholic religion claims to have sympathy for all couples who are infertile but they also do not believe in these types of procedures. There are other options such as adoptions to help create a family of your own.

Source by Elijah James

Estrogen Dominance – The Bane of Infertility Issues – Both Male and Female Fertility

Estrogen (estradiol) is the hormone that is responsible for majority of the cases of infertility in both male and female. Estrogen dominance relative to progesterone and or testosterone is the major hormonal imbalance in infertility treatment. Every other symptoms or manifestation of infertility stems from hormonal imbalance. This is exactly what most fertility doctors and reproductive endocrinologists ignore to master. You must realign these hormones in proper balance to boost fertility. For infertile women, estrogen must be balanced with progesterone while infertile men must balance estrogen with testosterone.

Both men and women consume environmental toxins in their food and drink which are loaded with estrogens. In addition, women make a lot of endogenous estrogens while men above 40 aromatize testosterone back to estrogen and dehydro-testosterone. Estrogen excess causes several known female infertility issues like fibroid tumors, uterine polyps, endometriosis, adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia, anovulation, primary ovarian failure, ovarian cysts (polycystic ovary disease), luteal phase defect, and tubal blockage. On the other hand, the male infertility factors like poor sperm profile is caused by lack of testosterone (stimulate sperm production) relative to dorminant estrogen (from aromatization of testosterone) which suppress male potency.

Unlike testosterone, estrogen is a group of three hormones: estriol (good estrogen), estrone (bad estrogen), and estradiol (the real bad and ugly estrogen). By the way hormones are chemical messengers that power cellular function. They are produced by endocrine or ductless glands that secret these chemicals directly into the blood stream. Hormones like estrogen and progesterone are secreted by some glands but exert their effect in other organs that has surface proteins called receptors. The receptors are like lock while the hormones behave like keys. Therefore, estrogen has its receptors in reproductive organs like ovary, uterus, birth canal, breast, and falopian tubes. Other estrogen receptors include the fat cells, liver, brain, and thyroid gland.

Estrogen can come from diet or is made from within the body (endogenous estrogens). Exogenous estrogens come from food sources like soy which has isoflavons and genistein which are forms of plant estrogen called phytoestrogen. Flax, carrot, red raspberry, black cohosh, and squash are all forms of estrogens. Other sources of estrogen are meat and dairy loaded with bovine growth hormones. Zenoestrogens are names given to estrogens from petroleum products (organophosphates), pesticides, dioxins, insecticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers (especially by eating genetically modified foods).

Another source of estrogen is myco-estrogens which comes from the colon through the activity of candida. Yeast come from bread, nuts, seeds and packaged foods. Yeast crave sugars and multiply in seconds to produce estrogens called mycoestrogens. And because yeast is saprophytes, they coexist with bad bacteria (anaerobes) in the colon. The bad bacteria include bacteriodes, clostridium and E.coli. These bad bacteria produce an enzyme called glucuronidase which makes it hard to eliminate used estrogen from the liver. Therefore, they raise estrogen level indirectly.

Having related all these, to boost fertility and combat infertility, estrogen dominance must be controlled for the infertility to turn to conception. Estrogen elimination must take a multi-pronged approach at five cardinal places:

Liver Detoxification: Aggressive cleansing detoxification of sluggish liver is necessary. The Chinese believe that it is the liver that controls ovulation. Yes, if you don’t make the eggs, you are not going to make the babies. You detoxify the liver with liver friendly fruits and vegetables. The chief of which is green leafy vegetables and bitters. The list include watercress, dandelion greens, cucumbers, lemon juice, lecithin, B-complex vitamins, milk thistle, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and NAC (N-acetyl cysteine).

Colon Cleansing: Do a special type of colon cleanse with saline laxative like Epsom salt, olive oil and lemon juice. Added to that are anti-yeast herbs like caprylic acid, oil of oregano, and pau d’arco. More vital is to eliminate beta glucuronidase enzymes that prevents phase II liver detoxification and elimination of estrogen with calcium d-glucarate. D-glucarate breaks down glucuronidase produced by the bad bacteria in the colon. They preserve glucuronic acid which is necessary for conjugation and elimination of spent estrogen in the liver. Otherwise estrogen is reabsorbed into the circulation where it goes back and causes further harm.

Aromatization Blocker (Aromatase Inhibitors): Aromatization is a process of turning one hormone into another. testosterone is responsible for both male and female libido. It is also necessary to stimulate sperm production in males. Therefore, aromatase inhibitor will prevent testosterone from turning into harmful estrogen. An aromatase inhibitor is also necessary in blocking testosterone from turning into dehydrotestosterone which is the hormone responsible for hair loss in both male and females. Dehydrotestosterone (and estrogen) are also responsible for prostate cancer in males. By the way, prostate is the male equivalent to the uterus. MYOMIN is the ultimate aromatase inhibitor. Myomin is a blend of four Chinese herbs developed by Dr. Chi who was a researcher with the Park Davis Drug Company. Myomin is also anti-inflammatory and can stimulate interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor that can shrink fibroids and ovarian cysts. Combating inflammation is central to any disease management. Myomin can also blocks estrogen receptors.

Estrogen Receptor Blockers: You must block estrogen at the receptor sites. Without receptors, estrogens will no have any effect at the target organs. Receptors are surface proteins that modulate the internal activities of estrogens to minimize their damaging effects. Myomin is a non-selective estrogen receptor blocker. It is better than tamoxifen which is a selective estrogen receptor blocker and only works in the breast and not the reproductive organs and fat cells. By the way fat cells manufacture estrogens themselves and myomin can block this process also.

Dissolve the Tumor or Fibrosis: This is necessary because the causes of infertility is due to women fibrosis diseases which hamper chances of fertility. Tumors or cyst anywhere in the body is unacceptable. Excess estrogen is free radical generating, inflammatory, fibrosis-forming and carcinogenic. Myomin is also great here because it can balance hormones especially with DIIM (diindolemethane). However, the infertile surfferer need a blend fibrinolytic enzymes. Fribrin is a type of protein that cause problem and mount immune response that cause most infertility problems.

These include uterine fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, polyps and cancers. Vitalzym is the enzyme of choice. It contains a blend of proteolytic or protein eating enzymes that dissolve all these tumors regards of where they are in the body. These enzymes also clean the blood, modulate the hormones, clean out bacteria and viruses and regulate the blood PH. Myomin and DIIM can stop series of miscarriages which is a form of inflammatory response and fetus rejection. Obstetricians in Europe use myomin to stop miscarriages (regarded as a type of infertility if it occurs three or more times).

In a nutshell, to boost fertility and combat infertility due to estrogen excess, you must clean the liver and colon by aggressive detoxification, add calcium d-glucarate to the mix. You must further block estrogen at the receptor sites, use aromatase inhibitors like MYOMIN and DIIM. To cap it up, use a systemic proteolytic enzyme blend like Vitalzym to eat up any tumor or growth that is already generated by excess estrogens. Yes, hormonal balance is necessary for the man to remain potent and for the woman to conceive a baby. These five outlined mechanisms enhance the harmonious dance of steroids (sex hormones) that sets the stage for fertility and potency. Any treatment that can boost fertility can cure infertility.

Source by Uzo Onukwugha

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