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Oral Sex and Sperm Antibodies

Ladies, if you’re in the habit of ingesting sperm, get out of the habit today. Experts in the field of immunological infertility have found evidence suggesting that women who swallow their partners’ sperm may form antibodies to the sperm. In a sense, swallowing the sperm is synonymous with being inoculated with it, and you could wind up giving yourself a sperm vaccine!

How is this possible?

When the sperm is introduced into the digestive tract, the immune system sees it as a foreign invader, forms antibodies to it, and kills it off. Later, when the same sperm shows up in the cervical canal, the immune system gets confused and attacks and kills the sperm on the spot, preventing conception.

The more sperm you swallow, the more antibodies you create, so a single episode of ingesting sperm will most likely not affect your fertility. In addition, since the antibodies are created in response to one specific partner’s sperm, past episodes of sperm swallowing with other partners should not cause your body to form antibodies to your current partner’s sperm.

Men often ingest their own sperm when they perform cunnilingus after intercourse with their female partners. In this case, past episodes of this with other partners can affect your fertility today. To avoid swallowing your own sperm, always wash your penis carefully after sex. When a male forms antibodies to his own sperm, the antibodies may even destroy the sperm before they leave his body.

Finally, women who have anal sex with their partners should avoid getting sperm inside their rectums, which can also cause their bodies to create sperm antibodies. Anal sex may cause the tissue inside the rectum to tear, allowing the sperm easy access into the bloodstream, triggering the immune system to create antibodies.

Bear in mind that this theory is still in the research phase and has not yet been absolutely proven! Nevertheless, if it’s true, it could be a powerful piece of preventive medicine for millions of couples.

Source by Jodi Ann Miller

Vitamin D – Immune System Support From the Sun

For over 60 million years, Vitamin D's ability to destroy microorganisms and strengthen your immune function has been conserved in the genome in animals ranging from humans to squirrel monkeys and baboons. Now, when it seems that we could all use an extra hit of the sunshine vitamin, it is shown to be even more important than we might have expected in waging a war on seasonal flu including this year's rather overblown H1N1.

A study published two months ago out of Oregon State University points to some little known (at least by most people) benefits of Vitamin D, which is actually a type of hormone that circulates in the bloodstream and is abundantly produced as a result of exposure to the sun. It's the presence of Vitamin D that allows the immune system to "turn on" in response to microbial attacks.

Vitamin D also helps the body to prevent what is called the adaptive immune response from over-reacting and in doing so reduces the potential for inflammation. For someone suffering from the flu, this inflammation could be expressed as something as dangerous as bacterial pneumonia, an infection of the lungs.

Research has demonstrated that Vitamin D can support our immune systems and help prevent influenza, but no one is getting that news out to people. Instead our governments are busy pushing all the flu shots that they bought from their friends in the pharmaceutical industry – much better that they buy chemical injections, than educate people about what our bodies are perfectly created to do naturally!

In addition to powering up our immune system's ability to respond to pathogens, Vitamin D is already recognized for its ability to address some types of seasonal depression, improve kidney function and support people with diabetes. I personally find its ability to counter balance our immune response that creates inflammation to be particularly interesting – much like the role that anti-oxidants like glutathione play in combating inflammation and contributing to pain relief.

The human body is a wonderful machine, with more brilliant little bells and whistles built into it than an iPhone. Unfortunately, it takes a lot of work to cut through the government and pharmaceutical propaganda that points to what they have decided is our only road to good health – drugs, drugs and more drugs.

Before you routinely slather on the SPF skincare products every time you go out into the sun, consider the benefits of a few minutes of real exposure to boost your own vitamin D levels and kick your immune responses up a notch or two. If you're not comfortable with that idea any more (which is really a shame) then look to other sources of Vitamin D like marine omega-3 oils and Vitamin D Dietary Supplement s.

Source by Anna Ruth

Natural Tips For Treating Acne

Acne is a very common problem. It involves a mixture of factors like hormones, microbial growth, and your innate immune system.

At certain times, mostly during puberty, the body begins generating higher amounts of oil due to hormonal changes in the body.

Sometimes due to bacterial growth on the skin or inside pores, the oil can not exit the follicle because it is clogged by dead cells inside the pore. The mixture of oil and cells generate an excellent environment for the development of acne.

Here we will give you some tips about how to treat acne in a natural way
You might find these tips helpful in treating acne from the inside out.

If You have acne do not apply oil-based products.
typically oily products are facial creams, moisturizers, and hair gels.
Skin with acne is already battling an overproduction of oil.
If You have an oily skin do not exacerbate the problem by using oil-based

Water seems to be beneficial for overall health, but water does not kill bacteria or decrease sebum production.

Water and green tea are beneficial because they help the skin discharge toxins and to alleviate acne.

Drink lots of water. Be sure you are always drinking water when you feel thirsty or a little hungry.
Drink only in small amount throughout the day. Drinking lots of water not only replenishes the body
water supply, but also flushes out toxins from the body that may created acne.
you should be going to the bathroom at least 3 times a day, this will help flush away all the free radicals and toxins from your body.

Green Tea extract has been in the forefront of the best home acne remedies today.
Green tea extract protects skin from further irritation and infections from bacteria that causes acne and
suppress dead tissues to linger on thus healing acne and forever guaranteeing you a flawless skin.

Fruits and vegetables does not naturally remove dark spots or work as a natural treatment of pimples.
Eating plenty fruits and vegetables support the defence system of the body against
the bacteria that causes acne. Fruits and vegetables are filled with vitamins and minerals
that fortifies the body defense system.
You can find vitamin A in Orange and leafy vegetables,
Vitamin A prevents over-production of sebum, which causes acne.
Vitamin C you can find in oranges, broccoli and strawberries.
Vitamin C and vitamin E are antioxidants which rejuvenate the skin.

Do not exfoliate skin that have acne. Rough treatment of skin that have
acne will only cause skin inflammation and make the acne problem even worse.
Do not use harsh soaps, chemicals, or cleaners on sensitive skin with acne.

Once you understand the causes of acne, you will realize that you are the cure for your acne.
It is all about what you drink and eat, your lifestyle and your daily skin care.

Source by Harold Febis

Lab Tech Job Description

There is a growing need for qualified laboratory professionals who use their skills in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and disease. These professionals are called laboratory technicians, clinical technicians, and scientists. These specialists perform different tests on tissue, blood, and other bodily fluids. Laboratory techs use scientific instruments such as, microscopes, computers, automated analyzers, and cell counters. Laboratory technicians also prepare specimens to be tested.

Technicians can generalize their practice and work in all clinical laboratory settings or there are different areas in which lab techs can specialize. These include: chemistry, immunology, hematology, microbiology, and blood banking. Technicians also carry out their duties under the supervision of a clinical technologist, lab scientist, lab manager or a pathologist. A technician also is responsible for preparing the lab results to be read and interpreted by other medical personnel, maintaining lab records and equipment.

Laboratory technicians are trained to work with and handle infectious material and specimens. While not without risks, when proper safety protocol of infection control and sterilization is followed these risks are greatly reduced. Protective clothing such as, goggles, masks, and gloves are used regularly for the protection of technicians. Laboratory techs usually work in shifts and need to be in relatively good health as they can be standing for long lengths of time.

Laboratory techs receive either a certificate from a teaching hospital, a technical or vocational school, or an associate degree from a community college. Also, different branches of the Armed Forces can train people to become technicians.

Many lab techs work for hospitals. But there are many places a tech can apply. Some of these are: federal labs, public health labs, biomedical companies, universities and colleges, pharmaceutical companies, and the Armed Forces.

The demand for qualified laboratory technicians is on the rise. Over the next few years, employment opportunities for medical techs are expected to increase ten to twenty percent. In a slow economy, this expected growth is very promising. As technology becomes more and more advanced it contributes to the growth in the medical laboratory fields as it opens new ways to discover better medicine and cures for people and disease.

Source by Leah P.

Forensic Science Colleges – Accredited Programs and Syllabus

If you are interested in a career in forensic science, you will need to earn a degree from pne of the accredited forensic science colleges. Although there are Associates degree programs, it is best to get a Bachelors or Masters degree from a university that is accredited by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). The Bachelors degree programs usually take at five years to complete.

Before choosing an FEPAC accredited forensic science school, be sure to check out all of the available programs. Different programs have different focuses, and are aimed toward preparing people for different forensics jobs. Bachelors degrees are usually meant for those who wish to work in a lab but not supervise. The Masters program at SUNY Albany is focused on preparing people to work in DNA labs, while the forensic science degree at Cedar Crest College is more focused on crime scene investigation.

Those wishing to get a forensic science degree would do well to start preparing while they are still in high school by taking as many science classes as they can, and participating in things like debate clubs to get their oral skills up to par. If there is no Bachelors degree program in Forensics available to you, get a degree in Biology or Chemistry.

In order to gain admittance into one of the colleges that result in a forensic science masters degree, students must have taken classes such as Genetics, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Calculus, Physics, Biostatistics and Immunology. They need to have taken the GRE exam and have a Bachelors degree. Work experience in forensics is helpful. At Cedar Crest College, those accepted to the Masters program who do not have work experience need to take three extra courses: Crime Scene Reconstruction and Pattern Analysis, Trace Evidence and Microscopy, and Forensic Molecular Biology and Population Statistics.

When choosing a program for a forensic technician, you should also be sure to check that it is affiliated with a lab where you can gain experience in the different techniques you will be learning about. Most accredited programs also include a research or internship component which will be helpful to you in gaining experience while you work toward your forensic science degree.

One thing you should know before applying to forensic science colleges – you need to have a squeaky clean background. Due to the nature of the work most employers will insist that you have no criminal record and no history of drug use. You will most likely have to submit to a background check, fingerprinting, drug testing, and a polygraph test in order to get a job. Louis Zhang, Certforensictechnician dot com

Source by Louis Zhang

Two Recommended Hospitals in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt, officially known as Frankfurt am Main is the second largest metropolitan area in the country of Germany. Frankfurt is a globally renowned center for commerce, transportation, finance, education, culture and tourism. It is regarded as the second most expensive city of Germany and one of the top 10 most livable cities in the world. This city is very multicultural as 30% of its residents are immigrants. It was also the former headquarter of the U.S. Army in Germany. Visitors can find many modern hospitals in Frankfurt that offer high quality health care at global standards. All the leading hospitals accept major health insurances and provide special accommodations for international patients. Here is a note on some of the better hospitals in Frankfurt.

The University Hospital of Frankfurt located at Theodor-Stern-Kai 7 is a major health care facility in Frankfurt. The hospital offers comprehensive medical service to a large number of patients. Founded in 1914, the hospital now has 25 medical clinics and 25 research institutes. It is one of the most well known centers for various types of transplant and the only designated center for liver and pancreas transplants in the area. The central laboratory performs every kind of test for hematology, immunology and coagulation analysis. Its ISO 9001:2000 certified Institute of diagnostic and interventional radiology is remarkable and offers service in many areas. This is a premier institute for medical education and research. Tel: + 49 69 630 10

Hospital of the Holy Spirit GmbH (Hospital zum heiligen Geist) is another popular hospital in Frankfurt that offers modern and effective health care at an affordable cost. This hospital is regarded as the oldest health care facility in the city with its glorious history of about 800 years. The center offers the complete range of medical services including internal medicine, gynecology, obstetrics, surgery, aesthesia, psychosomatic medicine and pain therapy. The surgical clinic employs some well known surgeons and works under and interdisciplinary consensus. The Women’s Hospital features four birth rooms with a birthing pool, a birth stool, and a waterbed. The hospital has the best emergency care unit and ICUs. The emergency section has 20 beds and features many specialized units for heart attack, renal failure, poisoning, acute abdominal problems and shock. Tel: 069/2196-0

Source by Belle Kay

Speech and Language Therapy for Children With Autism

What is it?

The goal of speech therapy is to improve all aspects of communication. This includes: comprehension, expression, sound production, and social use of language (1). Speech therapy may include sign language and the use of picture symbols (2). At its best, a specific speech therapy program is tailored to the specific weaknesses of the individual child (1). Unfortunately, it can be difficult to create a child-specific, evolving, long-term speech therapy plan (1, 3).

The National Research Council describes four aspects of beneficial speech therapy-

(1) Speech therapy should begin early in a child's life and be frequent.

(2) Therapy should be rooted in practical experience in the child's life.

(3) Therapy should encourage spontaneous communication.

(4) Any communication skills learned during speech therapy should be generalizable to multiple situations (4).

Thus, any speech therapy program should include practice in many different places with many different people (2). In order for speech therapy to be most successful, caregivers should practice speech exercises during normal daily routines in the home, school, and community (1, 5). Speech therapists can give specific examples of how best to incorporate speech therapy throughout a child's day (6).

What's it like?

Speech therapy sessions will vary greatly depending upon the child. If the child is younger than three years old, then the speech therapist will most likely come into the home for a one hour session. If the child is older than three, then therapy session swill occur at school or in the therapist's office. If the child is school age, expect that speech therapy will include one-on-one time with the child, classroom-based activities, and consultations between the speech therapist and teachers and parents (2).

The sessions should be designed to engage the child in communication. The therapist will engage the child through games and toys chosen specifically for the child. Several different speech therapy techniques and approaches can be used in a single session or throughout many sessions (see below).

What is the theory behind it?

Children with autism not only have trouble communicating socially, but often also have problems behaving. These behavioral problems are believed to be at least partially caused by the frustration associated with the inability to communicate. Speech therapy is intended to not only improve social communication skills, but also teach the ability to use those communication skills as an alternative to unacceptable behavior (1).

Does it work?

Many scientific studies demonstrate that speech therapy is able to improve the communication skills of children with autism (1). The most successful approaches to speech therapy include: early identification, family involvement, and individualized treatment (3). There are many different approaches to speech therapy and most of them are effective. The table below lists some of the different approaches. In most cases a speech therapist will use a combination of approaches in a program.

Type of Speech Therapy


Does it Work?

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)

broad term for forms of communication that supplement or enhance speech, including electronic devices, picture boards, and sign language

Yes (2)

Discrete trial training

therapy that focuses on behavior and actions

Yes (1)

Facilitated communication

communication technique that involves a facilitator who places his hand over the patient's hand, arm or wrist, which is placed on a board or keyboard with letters, words or pictures

No (1, 3)

Functional communication training (FCT)

use of positive reinforcement to motivate the child to communicate

Yes (4)

Generalized imitation

child is encouraged to mimic the therapists mouth motions before attempting to make the sound

Yes (5)

Mand training

use of prompts and reinforcements of independent requests for items (referred to as mands)

Yes (6)

Motivational techniques

therapy techniques that focus on following the child's lead and capitalize on the child's desire to respond

Yes (7)

Peer mentors / circle of friends

use of children who are trained to interact with the autistic child throughout the day

Yes (8)

Picture exchange communication system

method of using picture symbols to communicate

Yes (9)

Relationship development intervention

trademarked treatment program that centers on the belief that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way

Yes (8)

Sign language / total communication

language of hand shapes, movements, and facial expressions (especially useful for ages 0-3)

Yes (1)

Story scripts / social stories

actual stories that can be used or adapted to teach social skills

Yes (1, 8)

Is it harmful?

There are no reports of speech therapy being harmful.


The cost of speech therapy is covered by the government through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The amount of speech therapy provided in this setting may be suboptimal and thus should be supplemented with private therapy. Private speech therapy can be expensive ($ 100 / hour approximately)

Speech therapy requires parental investment of time. In order to be most effective, parents should be fully integrated into the therapy program and should seek out opportunities to practice communication throughout the daily routine. With time, this should become a new way of life.


Autism is a condition covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Services covered by IDEA include early identification and assessment and speech language pathology (speech therapy). This law protects the rights of patients with autism and provides guidelines to assist in their education. It covers children from birth to age 21 (US Department of Education Web site). Pediatricians can provide contact information for the state early intervention program (for children 0 to 3 years old). School districts will coordinate special services for children 3-21 years old.

Parents of nonverbal children should consider incorporating PECS.

Signing Times is one of many companies selling systems that help to teach children sign language.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Principles for speech-language pathologists in diagnosis , assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span: Technical report.

Charman T, Stone W. Social and Communication Development in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Identification, Diagnosis, and Intervention. New York, The Guilford Press, 2006, pp. 115-266.

Paul R, Sutherland D. Enhancing early language in children with autism spectrum disorders. In Volkmar FR, Paul R, Klin A, et al. Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Third Edition, Volume Two. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, pp 977-1002.


1. Goldstein, H. 2002. "Communication Intervention for Children with Autism: A Review of Treatment Efficacy." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders v32 n5 p373-96 Oct 2002.

2. Diehl, SF 2003. "The SLP's Role in Collaborative Assessment and Intervention for Children with ASD." Topics in Language Disorders v23 n2 p95-115 Apr-Jun 2003.

3. Lord, C. 2000. "Commentary: achievements and future directions for intervention research in communication and autism spectrum disorders." J.Autism Dev.Disord. 30 (5): 393-398.

4. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, CLaJPME2001. "Educating Children with Autism." Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, CLaJPME The National Academies Press.

Ref Type: Book, Whole

5. Koegel, LK 2000. "Interventions to facilitate communication in autism." J.Autism Dev.Disord. 30 (5): 383-391.

6. Safran, SP, et al. 2003. "Intervention ABCs for Children with Asperger Syndrome." Topics in Language Disorders v23 n2 p154-65 Apr-Jun 2003.

7. Light, JC, et al. 1998. "Augmentative and alternative communication to support receptive and expressive communication for people with autism." J.Commun.Disord. 31 (2): 153-178.

8. Keen, D., et al. 2001. "Replacing prelinguistic behaviors with functional communication." J.Autism Dev.Disord. 31 (4): 385-398.

9. Ross, DE, and RD Greer. 2003. "Generalized imitation and the mand: inducing first instances of speech in young children with autism." Res.Dev.Disabil. 24 (1): 58-74.

© 2007 Healing Thresholds

Healing Thresholds Inc. authorizes you to view or download the material on the Healing Thresholds site if you include the following copyright notice: "Copyright © 2007, Healing Thresholds, Inc. All rights reserved"

Source by Lara Pullen, PhD

What Causes Inflamed, Itchy, Eczema-Prone Skin?

The causes of inflamed, itchy and eczema-prone skin vary because there are many types. Healthcare professionals often refer to several different conditions under the same broad category.

Further complicating the matter is that some synonyms such as dermatitis are used to describe the condition. In many cases, the underlying cause is an allergy. The allergy-related forms, the symptoms and causes have been detailed in a paper published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. But even this paper does not cover the non-allergic eczemas, of which there are several.

If you are affected by one of the eczemas, whether allergy-related or not, this article should help you identify the cause or causes.

Atopic Cause

The atopic kind is the most common. It is referred to as infantile when it appears between the ages of 3 and 6 months.

It is one of the allergy related types and there is believed to be a hereditary component. It seems to run in families. But, if genetics are involved, no causative genes have been identified.

People who suffer from the atopic type are often asthma sufferers, as well. This means that systematic inflammation is involved. The latest research indicates that dietary factors are involved in systematic inflammation.

Food Cause

How could what you eat be a cause of inflamed, itchy and eczema-prone skin? There are certain foods that contribute to inflammation throughout the body.

They include simple carbohydrates and heavily processed foods, as well as those containing artificial preservatives and dyes. Artificial preservatives, flavorings and colors have been linked to other health problems, too.

In the atopic type, a rash is usually noticeable on the head, scalp and neck. It is sometimes confused with dandruff. The rash may also be present on the inside of the elbows, behind the knees and on the buttocks.

People with inflamed, itchy and eczema-prone skin are sometimes diagnosed with contact dermatitis. This type is caused by exposure to allergens, irritants or both. Any number of allergens may be involved including poison ivy.

Synthetic Ingredients Are Culprits

The artificial preservatives, fragrances and dyes in skincare products are common culprits. Sodium laurel sulfate found in detergents, body wash, shampoo and other cleansers is often the problem.

The third type, which is relatively common, is known as xerotic eczema. It is caused by excessive dryness and is also known as winter itch, because it is worsens during the winter months.

Temperature Cause – Shower / Bath

People with inflamed, itchy and eczema-prone skin of all types tend to have more problems in the winter. The relative humidity inside of the home is very dry. Changes in temperature, going from outdoors to in or vice versa, contributes to dryness. This is complicated by the hot water in the shower and the chemicals found in regular tap water.

There are numerous other types of eczemas, but they are all relatively rare. Some types actually become worse in warm weather. Other causes include varicose veins, habitual scratching or rubbing, celiac disease (which is also related to diet) and infection. In some types, no cause has ever been identified.

No matter the cause of inflamed, itchy and eczema-prone skin, relief is available. Now's a good time to learn about that subject.

Now, all you need to know is how to correct the problem and prevent it from returning. The next article will deal with How to Heal Inflamed, Itchy, Eczema-Prone Skin. See link for article in the author-resource box below. The solution is simple to do.

Source by Margaret Bell

One in seven Americans suffered it. Appendicitis. What is it?

It's 10 pm. Severe pain in your belly. You are in ER. Previous day you had a nice party with your friends. Then pain started around your umbilicus (navel). You thought first: aha, probably you ate something bad, it will go away. But it does not. You have vomited once and lost appetite. Pain did not improve but worsened. After a day of suffering you decided to visit the hospital. Long taxi trip. Pain is shooting every time the car bumps into a pot. Nurses ask you bunch of questions and place in an available room. There is a confused 90 something years old women in the neighbor room. She mumbles something incomprehensibly. The woman has come from a nursing home. She suffers Alzheimer disease and yells every night for the past 7 years. She has history of multiple medical problems. They brought her in the ER after she developed fever. Nurses draw your blood. You pain is getting gradually worse. Change your position, pull your legs. Pain does not go away. When the … doctor comes? At last ER physician sees you. He writes H + P and ER orders. A stretcher is rolled in. They take you to a radiology department and put into a big machine looking like a gate. Everybody leaves you and the machine drives you into the big metal doughnut. They bring you back into the ER.

Surgical intern comes. He did not rest since 5 AM. He asks bunch of the same questions again and pokes your belly. A tired resident comes. He pokes your belly again. You still wait, become bored, complain on delay, call your relatives. It's already 2 AM. At last the resident discuss your symptoms with attending over the phone. He tells you that you have appendicitis and CT scan confirmed it. History and physicals are written. Admission orders are written. Pre-op orders are written. Antibiotics are prescribed. IV fluid is running 80 ml an hour. You sign consent for operation. Transporting guys take you upstairs – depending on severity of your symptoms – straight to or to the floor. Attending will operate you first thing in the morning.

Classically appendicitis starts as a pain that began in the periumbilical region (around navel – you belly pot). Then pain moves to the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Nausea and vomiting often present after the onset of the pain. Classically, patient has low grade fever (this means around 37-38 C or 101-102 F), positive psoas sign (you stretch your leg and this movement increases your pain), positive Rovsing sign (Doctor pokes in your left lower quadrant of the abdomen, and you fill the pain in you right lower quadrant), Leukocytosis. Leukocytes are the white blood cells – WBC. Usually there are around 4000-9000 white cells per micro liter of you blood. When you have inflammation in you body the count goes up.

Your pain during appendicitis classically localizes in Mc Burney's point. That is one third between your umbilicus and anterior superior iliac spine (this is the bony point that is sticking most prominently from your pelvis – you can palpate it yourself on the side of your belly). For confirmation a doctor also may try to elicit obturator sign – he will ask you to bend you knee and bring your heel to your groin – this manoeuver increases the pain during appendicitis. Similar test is the raising of the leg while you lie on the stretcher. That movement also increases your pain.

Appendicitis is the inflammation of appendix supposedly due to narrowing of this lumen. That narrowing may be caused by hyperplasia of appendix (means too big growth, overgrowth of the tissue). That variant happens in children mostly. Another variant – is fecalith (small stony fecal material) that impacts into the appendix lumen. That is seen in young adults mostly.

Appendix itself is a small part of gut. It is pencil-size sticking out gut. Gut is a continuos tube. Mouth is entry. Anus is exit. Appendix sticks out from the wall and ends blindly. It has only one entrance. Appendix is ​​attached to the Caecum (part of gut – literally means blind colon in Latin). Appendix of ruminating animals (animals that chew grass, like cow) is very long and big. Appendix in humans is reduced to the pencil-size. However it does not disappear. There is a theory that appendix plays role in immune response. The walls of appendix are actually filled with lymphatic tissue containing lymphocytes (those are subtype of White Blood Cells). Lymphatics is responsible for immunity.

The removal of appendix does not really change immunity significantly. Nonetheless, it is not something redundant. Unless it is inflamed there is no good reason to remove it.

Now, acute appendicitis is the acute inflammation of appendix. Suffix "-itis" means inflammation in Latin. Appendicitis is also the most common cause of acute abdomen. Acute abdomen in surgery is a condition in abdomen that requires urgent actions, usually surgical.

To diagnose appendicitis you need to have right lower quadrant pain.

The pain should be present together with either appropriate history (all those classical signs and lack of appetite) or Leukocytosis (increase in white blood cells in the blood).

Patients often ask questions: Can I avoid surgery? Can you treat me with antibiotics alone? You told me that it is possible to treat the appendicitis with antibiotics alone. Please, I do not want surgery, my mother (father, brother, fiancee) said that I can avoid surgery.

The answer is: you can try to avoid it probably, but the odds of death are much higher if you treat appendicitis without surgery. Untreated appendicitis may lead to perforation in less than a day. Sun rises. Sun sets. Appendix bursts. So, the prompt surgical intervention is the main solution. On occasion, the surgeon may even find a normal-appearing appendix and no other problem explaining the symptoms. He may remove the appendix anyway because it is better to remove a normal-appearing appendix than to miss mild case of appendicitis.

To cool down the infection before surgery doctors use antibiotics. Antibiotics may convert acute appendicitis into more chronic type. However the removal of the appendix is ​​the choice.

With modern technology it becomes much easier to distinguish appendicitis and other causes of pain in right lower quadrant. Yet there is no 100% proof diagnostics. Sometime doctors treat with antibiotics alone, when they are not sure. Though, modern CT-scan shows appendicitis almost close to 100%.

What would happen if you miss the appendicitis and appendix bursts? You will get one of the most dreaded surgical complication – peritonitis. Again, "-itis" equals inflammation. Peritoneum means the peritoneal cavity.

It is difficult to describe the shape of the peritoneal cavity. That shape is very complex. Simple explanation: peritoneal cavity is like a closed bag. It is completely closed in males

Female have small holes in the peritoneum. Oocytes (future babies) go from ovaries first to peritoneal cavity. The holes in the peritoneum allow oocyte to go into Fallopian tubes. Fallopian tubes lead into the uterus (womb in English or hyster in Latin or uterus in Greek). Organs that are covered by peritoneal cavity linings are named intra-peritoneal. There are also melo-peritoneal, extra-peritoneal or retro-peritoneal organs that covered partially or not covered at all. It looks like the main function of peritoneum (peritoneal cavity) is to give some lubrication to your guts. Though there are other functions as well.

Now, take a plastic bag, pour a little bit of water or oil into it and seal. Put one hand on one side of the bag, another hand – on another side of the bag and rub against each other. You can see your hands slide easily. This is the idea of ​​peritoneum – you bowels slide easily against each other even when they are stretched by food and when they are pushing the digested food down. When a bowel is punctured (perforated), the content of the bowel will go into the peritoneal cavity. Colon (lower, bigger bowl) has the fecal material. Fecal material consists of bacteria on 2/3 (yeah, there are so many of them). Now, that small puncture in one part of the gut will cause spillage of the bacteria all around that closed bag of peritoneum.

Guts on inside have several mechanisms protecting from bacteria. Peritoneal cavity does not 'have such a protection.

Small puncture in one part of gut will cause all of you guts be inflamed on outside non-protected side (for the gut it is outside, but for the peritoneal cavity it is the inside). This is the peritonitis (diffuse). This what the surgeons are afraid of. Look at you. You belly is like half of you body. So it is like half of you body is severely inflamed. Eventually it may lead to sepsis, a condition in which bacteria enter the blood and infect other parts of the body. This is life-threatening complication.

Sometime inflammation stays local and seals off forming an abscess. Abscess is the walled off accumulation of pus. Pus is the mixture of dead and alive bacteria, dead white blood cells (leukocytes; leukos = white, cyte = cell) that fought the infection and honorably died, and dead tissue, that was digested partially by bacteria and partially by the stuff from leukocytes . Inflamed peritoneum (the lining of the peritoneal cavity is also named peritoneum) easily adhere to each other and may seal of the infection – there will be local peritonitis. Any adherence may cause problems in the future – guts do not slide easily anymore and food or stool sticks. Blockage of the intestine may occur in acute appendicitis as well. This is partially responsible for the nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, when antibiotics are used, appendicitis goes away without surgical treatment. It happens in elderly patients. The patients may come to the hospital with a lump or a mass in the right lower abdomen looking like tumor.

Diagnostic problem with appendicitis is that some other conditions may mimic it.

Abdominal cavity is packed with different organs. Other sources could cause pain in right lower quadrant. Females may have ovarian torsion or tuboovarian abscess or extrauterine pregnancy (this is why doctors persistently ask: when was your last menstrual period? Are you taking contraceptive hormones? Did you have vaginal bleeding?), Etc. They also check your chorionic hormone, trying to find if you are pregnant.

Scrupulous doctor asks your permission to perform rectal exam. Many people refuses to do it. I can understand that. Who would like that somebody sticks fingers into his ass. I would not. But the rectal exam gives a lot of information. Rectum – is the part of gut that is closest to the back orifice. Back orifice is named anus in Latin or anal canal. Surgeons say that there are only two contra-indications for avoiding rectal exam: 1. patient does not have anus 2. Surgeon does not have fingers.

Rectal exam in appendicitis is usually unremarkable. Maybe you can cause pain by palpating the side wall of the rectum that is close to the appendix. But the rectal exam allows to distinguish other disorders. During the rectal exam you may palpate hemorrhoids, uterus, nodules in prostate or enlarged prostate, you may feel fluid in lower part of peritoneal cavity, etc. You may see blood on the finger telling you about internal bleeding. You may check the stool for small amount of blood (named fecal occult blood test – FOBT – or Guaiac test by the name of the dye that turns blue in the presence of blood. At last rectal exam may help in dis-impaction of rectum. That is when hard stool causes bowel obstruction.

Usually a rectal exam is more or less normal. But every surgeon will tell you a war story about how once in while, once in five years he found something significant on rectal exam, something that every other doctor missed. Just by putting the finger into the butt. I saw how a surgeon put a finger into an old, demented women and pulled out a pessarium. It was an apple-size pink plastic membrane, that should go into vagina, but somebody (at home?) Put it (by mistake?) Into the rectum of that woman. You really need to push hard to get such big object into the anus. The poor lady suffered bowel obstruction for a week and would probably die if it stayed long enough.

OK, lets return to appendicitis. So, doctors will check you White Blood Cell Count Any infection or inflammation may cause this count to be abnormally high. It is not specific for appendicitis, but it confirms other findings.

Next, doctors check Urinalysis – microscopic examination of the urine. That detects red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. When there is inflammation or stones in the kidneys or bladder, the urinalysis is abnormal. A normal urinalysis is more characteristic to appendicitis.

Next they try to image what is going on in your belly. An abdominal x-ray may detect the fecalith as the cause of appendicitis (5%). Free air due to perforation can might be seen on the plain film.

A barium enema may be used. It is an x-ray test where liquid contrast is used from the anus to fill the colon. Sometimes it show an impression on the colon in the area of ​​inflamed appendix. Barium enema also can exclude other intestinal problems that mimic appendicitis.

Ultrasound shows an enlarged appendix or an abscess. Ultrasound is painless, but the appendix can be seen in only half of patients. Ultrasound also is helpful in excluding the problems with ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus. Ultrasound machine usually looks like a small thumb on wheels that they bring into your room. Technician puts gelly on and drives the probe over you belly.

Often they go straight to CT Scan (computer tomography). Especially if the patient is not pregnant. CT scan gives relatively high irradiation of your body by x-rays. However benefits of prompt diagnose of appendicitis outweigh the risk of radiation. CT scan gives slicing images of your body.

What do they look for? As any inflammation causes edema, the wall of the appendix will be thickened. This is actually a defensive mechanism – by edema the organism try to wall of, to seal off the area of ​​infection and inflammation.

But it is useful for us because we can surely say there is an inflammation. The same goes for ultrasound.

CT scan is expensive – around 1000 dollars in an American hospital, though 40 dollars in Russia.

If the CT scan is taken during the night, CT image may be send to Australia Russia or India.

An American radiologist is paid around 40 dollars to read just an X-ray film. I guess he gets more for reading the CT scan. It is only 5 dollars in India. This is why even such clinics as Harvard and Yale adopt this model of work – they send the CT scans to the cheap labor abroad. Especially during the night. Half an hour later the fax from Australia arrives. "Inflammatory pericecal mass in the right iliac fossa consistent with the diagnosis of severe acute appendicitis." Any doctor can read an x-ray film or CT scan. Radiologists are doctors who specialize in the reading of the films. They may find what was missed by others.

At this point diagnosis is usually clear. In cases if it is not, there is Laparoscopy. Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure. Small fiberoptic tube with a camera is inserted into the abdomen through a small puncture in abdominal wall.

Yet there is no test that will diagnose appendicitis with 100% certainty.

The position of the appendix may vary. If it is longer than normal, appendix may go deep down into the pelvis. It also may move behind the colon (called a retro-caecal appendix). From one hand it is better because retro-caecal appendix has less chances to burst into peritoneal cavity, from the other it is difficult to diagnose and it is difficult to approach surgically. Inflammation of other organs, for example, female pelvic organs, may resemble inflammation of the appendix. Pregnant women may have appendix pushed up in abdomen by the enlarged uterus. Athletic young adults may tolerate more pain and may have not so obvious symptoms of appendicitis. Old patients may have vague symptoms as well.

Other inflammatory problems may mimic appendicitis. Surgeons often observe patients with suspected appendicitis for a period of time to see if the problem will resolve or suggest appendicitis more strongly versus another condition. Conditions that mimic appendicitis are:

1) Meckel's diverticulitis. 2) Pelvic inflammatory disease -infection of tube and ovary. It is treated with antibiotics alone 3) Fluids from the right upper abdomen may drip into the lower abdomen and cause inflammation resembling appendicitis. Then, for example, patient has gallbladder disease or liver abscess, but all symptoms suggest acute appendicitis. 4) Diverticulitis that occur on the right side. 5) Inflammation of right kidney. 6) Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis 7) Yersinia enterocolitica infection – the bacteria that comes form certain food – like unpasteurized milk. – May cause appendicitis 8) passing kidney stone 9) ectopic pregnancy 10) ovarian cyst rupture. And so on. There are some other conditions.

Appendectomy is performed urgently usually. Thomeo is Latin for dissect or cut. Lapar – is abdomen (belly) in medical Latin. Laparotomy is opening of belly. Appendectomy is cutting of appendix. Laparoscopy is looking (by scope) into belly. Antibiotics almost always are given prior to surgery as soon as appendicitis is suspected.

Few patients have mild "confined appendicitis" localized to a small area. These patients may improve during several days of observation when treated with antibiotics alone. Doctors may or may not removed the appendix later. Chances are you are not one of this patients.

If a person has not seen doctor for many days while appendicitis ruptured (yeah, sometime happens; there are some tough guys), an abscess may form, and the perforation may close. Initially it can be treated with antibiotics; however, that will require drainage later. A drain is guided under ultrasound or CT scan and appendix is ​​removed after the abscess resolves.

In modern days surgeons offer laparoscopic appendectomy. They insert laparoscope (it is like a small telescope with a video camera) and remove appendix with special instruments through small puncture wounds.

If you had this type of surgery, you will probably have four 1-cm size scars and you will go home in one or two days.

But if your case is complicated or there is just no laparoscopy in the hospital, they will do classical appendectomy. Surgeon cuts 10-cm incision in the area of ​​the appendix. Appendix is ​​removed form the right lower abdomen or where it is. Area is checked for other problems. In the case of abscess the purulent stuff will be drained with rubber tubes through the skin. With that kind of surgery you will probably stay for four to seven days. Antibiotics will help to resolve the abscess.

This is why you sign the consent: "laparoscopic appendectomy, possible conversion to an open appendectomy".

The most common complication of appendectomy is wound infection. If it is severe, the surgeon will postpone incision closure for several days.

Ok, now you have those four small scars or one big scar, you go home and visit that party that you missed.

Source by

Eating For Immunity

Our bodies are constantly bombarded with all types of bacteria, viruses and other nasty organisms that are desperately trying to gain entry. It really is a battle for survival. It has been said that as little as 1 square inch of freshly washed skin can contain as many as 1 Million bacteria.

A large part of what helps us maintain a healthy and active immune system is what we eat. In some parts of the world, where nutritious food is in short supply we find increased cases of weakened immunity, hence people in these locations are more susceptible to developing infections. This also shows in people suffering from cancer and other serious illnesses, where patients have difficulty eating and immunity takes a battering.

Some research indicates that even a single nutrient that is lacking can have consequences on the immune system. Food can be a powerful medicine. Eating more of some foods and limiting others can substantially increase the bodies ability to fight most illness – from colds to cancer.

Eating a well balanced diet is the best protection you can give your immune system. A diet consisting of a selection of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seafood, seeds & nuts is essential. Many of these foods are antioxidants, which will give the immune system an extra boost.

Antioxidants are extremely important. Immune cells in your body are constantly hit by a barrage of free radicals. Free radicals are oxygen molecules that are created in huge numbers every day. Free radicals are missing an electron so as they speed through the body they seek out electrons from wherever they can find them. Each time they steal an Electron – another cell is damaged.

Antioxidants enter the body with their own electrons, which are offered to free radicals in place of those that would normally be stolen from the body.

Some of the best foods for lifting the immunity are those with beta-carotene. Carrots are a great source of beta-carotene. Some research has shown that getting 15 – 30 milligrams of beta-carotene per day (about the amount from 3 medium carrots) can have a positive increase in immunity. Most yellow fruit and vegetables as well as dark green leafy vegetables are all excellent sources of beta-carotene.

Source by Eric J Smith

Antitumor Immune Response

Communication between the immune system and tumor cells takes place via both cell-cell contact-dependent receptor-ligand interactions and released cytokines / chemokines. T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system learn in the thymus to distinguish various self or altered self-structures from non-self-structures presented as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II antigens (pMHC). pMHC molecules represent the antigenic universe to ab-T lymphocytes, both the self and the non-self-repertoire.

Gd-T lymphocytes recognize small phosphorylated molecules or non-classical MHCI antigens in a non-MHC restricted manner, and B lymphocytes recognize tertiary or quaternary structures of antigens using immunoglobulins (Ig). A third type of recognition is used by cells of the innate immune system: natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lack of expression of self (missing self), ie, absence or low cell-surface levels of MHCI and / or MHCII molecules Furthermore, antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, and granulocytes can recognize non-self-structures via toll-like receptors (TLR) or C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) .

Activation of T cells, NKT, or NK cells happens via the interaction of activating receptors (KAR) associated with signaling molecules expressing immuno-tyrosineactivation- motif (ITAM) signal-motifs in their cytoplasmic region. T lymphocytes and NKT cells express T-cell receptor (TCR) / CD3 complexes, and T, NKT, or NK cells express KARs such as NKG2D associated with DAP10 signal-transduction molecules and Ly49D associated with DAP12 molecules. It appears that the high number (~ 10) of ITAMs associated with TCR molecules is necessary to avoid autoimmunity. Inhibition of cell activation by inhibitory receptors (KIRs) such as NKG2A / CD94 is related to the expression by KIRs of ITIM inhibitory motifs in their cytoplasmic tails

Helper T (Th) cells trigger differentiation of precursor cells into CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or antibody-producing B cells. The so-called Th1 cells induce preferentially the production of IL-2 and IFNg and the differentiation of CTL, whereas Th2 cells induce mostly the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and the differentiation of B cells into antibody -producing plasma cells. When administered to elicit specific immune responses and memory but not tolerance, the antigens have to be presented in the form of cells, particles, or aggregates, or emulsified in adjuvants such as Freund's adjuvants or aluminum salt precipitates. A unifying concept of these phenomena was proposed by late Charlie Janeway.

The innate immune system, NKT cells, NK cells, DC, macrophages, and granulocytes are activated by pathogenassociated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by means of TLR or CLRs. The DC differentiates from immature, phagocytosing cells to mature, non-phagocytosing cells with increased levels of co-stimulatory molecules such as MHCII, CD40, CD80, and CD86 and enhanced antigen-presenting activity. Cells from the innate immune system release inflammatory cytokines that induce the priming of CD4 + Th subpopulations (Th1, Th2, and Th17). Immediately after stimulation, NKT cells release preformed IFNg and IL-4 which direct Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, respectively. IFNg triggers DC to produce IL-12, which induces preferential Th1-priming and NK cell production of IFNg and cytotoxicity. A subset of DCs, CD8 + CD205 + dendritic cells, produces endogenous TGFb and is specialized to induce Foxp3 + Treg cells, whereas another subset, CD8 CD205 and DCIR-2 + (DC inhibitory receptor-2), participates in Th2 responses.

Although stimulation of the innate immune system may greatly help the initiation of adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, over-activation of the innate immune system represents a risk due to a possible "fatal cytokine storm" However, the cytokine storm is prevented by CD4 + Th or CD8 + CTL, which down-regulate the activity of the innate immune cells by a cell-cell contact, MHC-dependent mechanism. It seems clear that memory T cells are derived from effector T cells by avoiding antigen-induced cell death. In contrast, the subdivision of CD4 + T cells into Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, and Treg cells is more malleable and demonstrates more functional plasticity than previously thought.

Inexperienced, naive T cells appear to receive different types of "secondary education" when they encounter antigen at various regional sites including tumor micro environments. Besides possessing different effector functions, DC and T cells should be able to migrate to and within tissues. Adhesion via L-selectin induces rolling, activation, and transmigration via chemokine receptors such as CCR7. The interaction between CCR7 and its ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, may balance immunity and tolerance T lymphocytes do not react with self-structures that are expressed in normal physiological conditions, ie, the organism is tolerant to self-structures.

However, thymus negative selection (central tolerance) is not infallible, and self-reactive Concepts and Ways to Amplify the Anti tumor Immune Response 99 T cells with low-avidity TCR do emigrate from the thymus. Such self-reactive T cells are regulated by CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory (Treg) cells (peripheral tolerance). Thus, since many anti tumor immune responses are "autoimmune" reactions, these are often weak in both quantity and quality. It is important to distinguish between the following three levels of low responsiveness to malignant cells:

(1) tumor-specific T cells with high-avidity TCR have been eliminated in the thymus;

(2) tumor cells or their products may induce tolerance (in the sense of unresponsiveness), ie, tumor-specific T cells are present but are rendered anergic;

(3) immune effectors recognize tumor cells but are prohibited from performing their natural function due to tumor-associated inhibitory molecules and / or cells.

The latter two phenomena are linked to the fact that resting DC or macrophages in the tumor induces and maintains peripheral tolerance and functional anergy in CD8 + T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells through PD-1 and CTLA-4-related mechanisms.

More resources out the find on Cancer treatment , detection and education

Source by Javed Shaik

Do Allergy Shots Work?

The best way to control your allergies is to stay away from what you are allergic to. Sometimes, however, that is almost impossible. At times, your best option may be to try and develop immunity to the allergen. It may sound backwards but being injected with small amounts of what causes your allergies can sometimes help control and reduce your allergic reactions.

The technical term for this procedure is allergen immunotherapy but almost everybody just calls it allergy shots. Sometimes it is also called specific immunotherapy because the injections are designed to target only your specific allergies. The first step, of course, is to clearly understand exactly what it is you are allergic to so that the allergy shots can be targeted for you. Your doctor will use various skin and blood tests to identify the specific allergies. Once the allergens are identified, the series of allergy shots can be setup. The procedure does not involve just one shot but rather a series of many shots administered over an extended period of time. You will get 1 or 2 shots per week of a very low dose to start with. Usually you are given the shot in your upper arm and the doctor will ask that you stay in the clinic for 20 to 30 minutes to make sure you don’t react severely to the dose. This procedure of one shot per week continues for up to 6 or 7 months with ever-increasing doses of the allergen. Once you reach a dose level that allows you to effectively fight off normal environmental levels of the allergen then the doctor will switch you to a maintenance allergy shot that will be given approximately once per month. The monthly maintenance allergy shot in some cases will continue for up to several years. Sometimes this procedure will give you a permanent immunity to the allergen but more often you will need to go through the procedure again at some time in the future.

The idea is to slowly build up your resistance to the allergies without giving you so much at a time that you get severe reactions. It is very similar to a vaccination. Over a period of time your body gets used to fighting off the invading substance and your negative reactions to the allergy are reduced or eliminated. You build up immunity to the allergy substance. The bodies normal reaction to allergens is to generate a substance called IgE which is short for immunoglobulin E. IgE builds up a defensive barrier to the allergen by causing typical allergy responses; runny nose, sore and watery eyes, sneezing, inflammation, congestion and skin redness. The goal of allergy shots is to get the body to make a different molecule called immunoglobulin G (IgG). Unlike IgE, IgG will go on the offensive against the allergen. It binds with and effectively destroys the allergen. This reduces the amount of the allergen that the IgE reacts to which in turn will reduce your allergy symptoms.

Allergy shots can be extremely effective against insect stings and bites and also against allergens that you would inhale. For example, up to 75 percent of hay fever sufferers get reduced or eliminated allergy symptoms by going through allergen immunotherapy.

Source by Michael Russell

How And When To Transplant A Plant

Let’s just say you notice that your landscape is not quite as it should be. After you get done with all your planting (of course AFTER you plant,) you notice that some of your trees, for example, simply do not belong where they are. You realize that, to be perfect, they should be moved a few feet this way, or a couple feet that way, or to the other side of the flower bed, etc. What you need to do to perfect your beautiful landscape is transplant. Let me assure you, transplanting in regards to landscaping clearly has nothing to do with the kind of transplanting that John Q was after. Well, actually, it is similar, but the object being transplanted in this case is being transplanted to save that object, not to save the object in which you wish to transplant it. Regarding landscaping, transplanting simply means digging up a plant from where it is not wanted and replanting it in a place where it is wanted. This could be done for the health of the plant, or simply for the aesthetic value of your landscape.

The most important thing to keep in mind is that transplanting a plant is quite similar to performing surgery on a person. If the person is under anesthesia, the surgery will not cause any pain; but if that person is awake and is aware of what is going on, you can bet anything that this poor fellow will be in more pain than baseball purists watching Barry Bonds. Plants are very similar to people in this regard. Transplanting a plant will cause the plant to suffer tremendously unless it is dormant. It will feel less and less suffering the more dormant it is. On the contrary, if the tree is alive and well and in full bloom when you transplant it, it is comparable to performing surgery on a person who is awake.

The very beginning of spring is a good time to transplant as long as the plant you wish to transplant is still dormant. As long as the plant is still sleeping, transplanting will not be traumatic for it. Being sure that the plant is dormant is the most important thing to be sure of when transplanting. Dormancy begins with the first good freeze and continues until the weather warms up.

Transplanting is safe to do until the plant starts to leaf out. Even if you begin to notice some green buds, transplanting is still usually okay as long as the plant has not started to leaf out. If the plant started to leaf out already, you must wait until the first freeze to ensure dormancy and then transplant.

It is very important to keep the plant out of the earth for as short a time as possible. It is not exactly the same, but it is similar to taking a fish out of the water: While it is clearly not the best thing for it, it is not detrimental unless it is for an extended period of time. You should also try to keep the roots damp while they are out of the ground.

It is best to dig a ball of earth with the roots when you transplant. If this is not possible, it is vital that you dig up enough of the roots to allow the plant to revitalize when you replant it. The basic rule for how much of the roots you need to dig up is usually about one foot of root-ball for every inch of the plant’s diameter. If the plant is three inches thick, the root-ball should be about three feet across.

If the roots are bigger than necessary, do not be concerned about what will happen to your plant if you prune the roots. This is often times actually quite beneficial for the plant, since the roots will then grow even stronger. Basically, the roots, when severed, grow lateral roots which are better at soaking up water and nutrients. There are even machines that are made for the purpose of pruning roots. There is a device that could be attached to a tractor which undercuts the roots, thereby forcing the roots to create more lateral roots. Root pruning, like transplanting, should only be done when the plant is dormant.

Root pruning is really a great method to prolong the life of your plants which predates tractors. Before tractors were as common as celebrities in rehab, farmers would thrust a spade into the ground around the plants. This would be done during dormancy if a plant was not doing well, or just to strengthen a plant. The spade would sever the roots creating more lateral roots. Now tractors are used, but it is the same thing with the same goal.

Source by Joe Knapp

Immunity System Boosters

Why do people get sick? One quick answer is because of germs. But this does not tell the whole story. At all times, billions of bacteria and viruses abound all around us, even inside our bodies, yet we continue to be in good health. Also, even when everyone else seems to have gotten the flu or whatever virus is running around, certain people remain immune and continue to be in their usual robust form. This points to the fact that with a healthy immune system, aided by immune boosters, we can steer clear of any infection and enjoy a clean bill of health.

The body's complex system is its final defense against disease-causing germs called pathogens. Physical barriers and certain chemicals serve as the body's first line of defense against invading microorganisms. These include the skin, sweat, saliva, and hairlike structures and mucous coatings that line the airways. When germs manage to get past these preliminary defenses, the immune system is triggered and it takes up the fight against the harmful invaders.

The immune system is made up mostly of white blood cells. Also called leukocytes, there are many types of white blood cells, each with a specific germ-fighting function. There are so-called killer T-cells that fight harmful microorganisms by destroying the cells containing them. There are phagocytic cells that neutralize microbial enemies by engulfing them. There are memory cells that "recognize" previous invaders and mark them for destruction by other white blood cells. And there are helper T-cells that, much like generals in a battle, decide which strategy to take to tackle the invading army of germs. These are just some of the major, and very fascinating, types of white blood cells.

Other parts of the immune system are the bone marrow, thymus gland, lymph nodes and spleen. Mostly, these produce white blood cells or synthesize antibodies that fight harmful microorganisms.

Sometimes, white blood cells or other components of the immune system become weak and fail to function properly. As a result, the disease-fighting ability of our body also weakens. We then become more vulnerable to infections. We are likely to get sick, especially if we do not make use of immunity system boosters.

Immunity system boosters can be nutrients from food. Like other parts of the body, cells of the immune system need proper nourishment. Lacking this, they can not operate at peak strength. Research indicates that phytochemicals, antioxidants and certain vitamins and minerals (including vitamins A, C, E, B, D, iron and zinc) all have immune-boosting properties. But the general conclusion is that a balanced diet, complete with all the essential nutrients, is what really strengthens the immune system. Given this, a complete multivitamin supplement will work better than one with only a selected number of vitamins or minerals. Isotonix Multivitamins is an example of a complete supplement that is specifically intended to keep the immune system at peak health.

Other immunity system boosters are fresh organic fruits, leafy green vegetables, whole grains and nuts. Yoghurt, garlic, and fish like tuna and mackerel are also great for the immune system. Abstaining from sugar, junk food and other items heavy on preservatives will strengthen the immune function. It is in fact a good idea to detoxify once in a while with a cleansing diet to get rid of accumulated toxins in the body. These toxins harm and slow down the immune system.

Also pay attention to getting enough sleep and rest, moderate exercise, and good stress management. These are not just immunity system boosters. They are wholesome habits that will help keep us happily healthy and disease-free.

Source by Jared E. Ingram

Facing a Corneal Transplant

Corneal Transplants are some of the most common transplants in the United States. There are annually over 40,000 transplants being preformed around the US. Over 90% of all transplants preformed are successful and after the procedure sight is restored. The Medical term for corneal transplants is Keratoplasty. There are many reasons why one would need a corneal transplant the two most common reasons are below:


Fuchs Dystrophy

These can cause cloudiness in the cornea often alters the natural curvatures of the cornea. They also reduce the quality of vision. In addition to these medical conditions these are a few other reasons for corneal transplants:


Chemical Burns


Fungi and Protozoa

Often local anesthesia is used during this procedure. With local anesthesia the patient is numb around the area of ​​the procedure, however they are still aware during the entire procedure. Additionally one could also use general anesthesia and be unconscious during the procedure. Often patients do not want to be aware during the procedure so Consult with your eye doctor to determine which way is best for you.

It is also very important that you speak with your physician on the risks of the corneal implant as well as the benefits. Many times if we hear enough good things and not the bad things we can convince ourselves that the procedure is right. However the decisions should be made only after knowing all the options and risks involved with the corneal implants. A few of the risks are:


Cataract Formation


Retinal detachment

In rejection of the corneal transplants the immune systems fights off the donor tissue. Only 5-30% of corneal transplants result in rejections. Here are a few of the symptoms to look for after a corneal transplant to show the body maybe rejecting it:

Sensitivity to light

Redness in eyes

Change in vision

Persistent or constant discomfort in the eyes

You should check with your eye doctor if you are having any of these symptoms or have any questions proceeding your corneal transplant. In the end the average corneal transplant is successful and a better quality of life is experienced because of it!

Source by Dr.

Important Facts About AIDS

AIDS or acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a condition that is categorized by several symptoms that are the result of the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. The overall effect of having AIDS is the eventual downfall of the immune system. This makes the individual with AIDS susceptible to infections and others diseases since there is a reduction in the immune system. The reduction of the efficiency of the individual's immune system makes him an easy target of various sicknesses and diseases called opportunistic infections.

The aim of the human immunodeficiency virus is to destroy the immune cells of the body thus rendering the individual open to various infections. Younger children and older adults may be more susceptible to rapid progression of the virus due to their already weakened immune system not being able to defend against HIV.


The most common way to contract AIDS is to have certain bodily fluid contact with an infected person. Examples of these body fluids are breast milk, blood, vaginal fluids, semen and preseminal fluid. Exposure to any of the mentioned fluids can ultimately lead to an infection of the human immunodeficiency virus and then when it gets full blown, AIDS. Exposure to these fluids includes but may not be limited to breastfeeding, mother and child exchanges during childbirth and pregnancy, oral, anal and vaginal sex, getting in contact with hypodermic needles exposed to the virus and blood transfusion.


Since HIV or AIDS is contracted through body fluids exposure through sexual activities primarily, the best way to prevent getting HIV or AIDS is to practice safe sex. Practicing safe sex can mean a lot of things including using condoms throughout the whole sexual act and also abstaining from sex with casual partners whom you are not sure of the sexual history. Oral, anal and vaginal sex can transmit the virus or the disease which means that condom for anal and vaginal sex is a must while oral sex is to be done with safe partners. The use of oil based lubricants with latex condoms can compromise the condoms safety as these oil based lubricants can make the latex porous.

Another way a person may contract AIDS is through exposure to body fluids via work as a health care worker. Gloves, masks and other protective and preventive barriers must be worn when dealing with individuals who are positive to have HIV or AIDS. Frequent scrubbing and cleaning of exposed skin can also help to prevent further exposure so with being careful when dealing with needles, scalpels and other sharp objects exposed to HIV or the disease itself.

Mother and child exposure can not be prevented during pregnancy and childbirth but after that there are certain measures that can ensure the prevention of the child's exposure to the disease.


Treatment for HIV and AIDS are still currently ongoing but there has been remarkable progress regarding controlling the disease. Antiretroviral medications have been developed to manage the disease and although it can not completely eliminate it, these cocktail of around two or three medications can ultimately improve the quality of life and mortality of a person exposed to AIDS.

Source by Brian Welsch

Hypersensitive Reactions and Your Dog

When you are someone who is interested in keeping your dog healthy or if you have been concerned about your dog's health in general, you will find that you need to look into hypersensitive reactions. It is important to remember that dogs, just like humans, can be allergic to different things, and that some of these allergies can be debilitating severe. When you are looking at understanding antibodies, all you need to know is that the body will produce antibodies in a way that is incorrect. There are several types of hypersensitivity, so make sure that you are aware of how your dog might reaction.

Type I hypersensitivity is often called immediate sensitivity and it is quite immediate and severe. The cells in your dog's body are overreacting and releasing large amounts of histamines. This happens most often with injectable medications and with things like pollen or animal dander. Hives are very likely to occur.

With Type II hypersensitivity, you are looking at the body producing antibodies that attack the animal itself. It can produce a lower than normal blood count and it can happen during transfusions.

Type III hypersensitivity is often known as immune complex mediated hypersensitivity and it essentially occurs when immune complexes form in the body and then end up lodged in certain areas. One common effect of this type of hypersensitivity is that the complexes will end up in the kidney and halt or impair the kidney's ability to filter blood. Over time, this can result in rheumatoid arthritis, something that plagues large dogs. Type IV hypersensitivity, which is also known as delayed hypersensitivity, will occur more than twenty four hours after the body is exposed to the trigger. This reaction might be due to things as varied as metals, dyes or other chemicals.

When you are dealing with a dog that has allergies, it is important to remember that speedy action is the key to a full recovery. Any pet owner should be observant when it comes to looking after their dog, and if you notice that your dog is pawing at his face or uncomfortable in his skin, you should look closer. The most common signs of hypersensitivity are going to be hives on the skin or a swelling around the face. In severe cases, a dog's eyes might be swollen shut or its throat might constrict due to swelling. If you have noticed that your dog has hypersensitivity, a test may be done to determine what he or she has a problem with; sometimes it might be a food, and other times, it is something in the environment.

Take a moment and learn more about allergies and your dog. This is something that can make a huge difference in the health of your pet, so see what you can do. In the first place, you need to be vigilant, and in the second place, you need to look into what you can do to root out the cause. If you notice your dog acting strangely, look and see what is the matter. This is something that can make a huge difference to your pet's quality of life.

Source by Kelly Marshall

What Blood Contains

Blood consists of a suspension of cells in a special fluid called plasma. In a grown man, is the blood of body weight 1 / 12vo corresponding to 5.6 liters. Blood consists of 55% plasma and 45% formed by cells called elements.Blood performs many important functions. At the hemoglobin in red blood cells that carry oxygen to tissues and accumulates carbon dioxide (CO2). It also transports nutrients (amino acids, sugars, minerals), and collect the separated material is excreted by the kidneys filter. Blood also transports hormones, enzymes and vitamins. He keeps the defense of the body by phagocytic activity of leukocytes, the bactericidal effect of serum and immune cells are the main characters.

serum or cell-free plasma can be obtained by centrifugation. The liquid plasma is slightly alkaline, with a distinct yellow color. It consists of 90% water and 10% solids. Nine Parts of it are made of organic substances, while some are composed of minerals. These organic substances are composed of carbohydrates (glucose), lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, lecithin, fats), proteins (immunoglobulins, albumin, fibrinogen), glycoproteins, hormones (gonadotropin, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin), amino acids and vitamins. Minerals dissolved in ionic form, which dissociates into positive and negative ions.

In certain blood cells are present, which are classified as erythrocytes and leukocytes. Platelets are not considered true cells. Then we will discuss the different types of blood cells.

Erythrocytes (RBC)
Red blood cells (corpuscles) contain hemoglobin (a substance that is able to bind to oxygen). Oxygen from the lungs is transported by red blood cells to all tissues in the body. A person who has anemia, a condition caused by too few red blood cells in the blood may show a weakness, fatigue and lack of red blood cells are breath.The blood cells are most likely to know about 4-6 million / mm3. They are also called red cells.

In the hall of red blood cells in mammals, does the absence of the base more hemoglobin and biconcave shape of these cells increases the surface area and cytoplasmic volume ratio. These properties make it more efficient diffusion of oxygen by these cells .. In the so-called "sickle cell anemia, red blood cells usually sickle-shaped electron microscopy, the biologists have seen the red blood cells can have different forms: normal (discocyte ), berries (teeth), strawberries (echinocytes), white (codocyte), anemia, oat hulls, is tight, sharp, bleeding, poikilocytes, etc. The half-life of erythrocytes is about 120 days. When you reach the end of their lives, they are retained by the spleen, where they are phagocytosed by macrophages.

Leukocytes (white blood cells)
leukocytes, or white, is responsible for defending the body. In the blood, which is much smaller than many red blood cells. The density of leukocytes in the blood is 5000-7000 / mm3. The leukocytes are divided into two categories: granulocytes and lymphoid cells or agranulocytes. The ANC is due to the presence of granules in the cytoplasm. In various types of granulocytes, the granules are different and help us to distinguish. In fact, these granules have a different affinity for acidic or basic neutral spots and give the cytoplasm in different colors. Thus, neutrophils are separated, eosinophils (or acidophilus) and basophils. Lymphoid cells, but differ in lymphocytes and monocytes. As we shall see, helps even the shape of the kernel's in recognition of leukocytes.

There are five types of white cells in the body, including the following:


These cells fight viruses, bacteria, and others and participate in hypersensitivity reactions seen in allergic reactions.

Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are (white blood cells that destroy bacteria). Granulocytes are characterized by small particles or granules, found in every cell, and contains substances that fight infections. Granulocytes undergo several developmental stages before becoming mature neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils o. The most immature myeloid series of cells called granulocytes are myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band forms (cells with a dagger), and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN).

Neutrophils are very active in the trailer and bacteria are present in large numbers in the pus of wounds. Unfortunately, these cells are not able to renew their lysosomes used in digesting microbes and killed after consuming any of them.

Eosinophils attack parasites and phagocyte antigen-antibody complex.

Basophils differ anticoagulant and vasodilator substances such as histamine and serotonin. Although they have a phagocytic capacity, its main function is to secrete substances that are involved in the hypersensitivity reaction.

Lymphocytes are cells which, in addition to being present in the blood, fill the lymphoid tissues and organs, and lymph flow through lymphatic vessels. lymphoid organs are the heart of the thymus, bone (in birds storage), spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer's patches and lymphoid tissues of the respiratory tract and stomach.

Most lymphocytes circulating in the blood is in a state of rest. They look like small round cells with a compact core that takes up almost the entire volume of the cell. Consequently, the cytoplasm is very low. Lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues and organs can be activated by a different amount of antigen stimulation. In blood, lymphocytes are 20-40% of all leukocytes soft and larger than red blood cells.

Lymphocytes are the main components of the immune system is a defense against attack by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists. performance and cell antibodies in their membranes. An antibody is a molecule that can bind to a form of complementary molecules, called antigens, and recognition. Like all proteins, although antibodies are encoded by genes. On the basis of a mechanism for the recombination of some of these genes, each cell produces antibodies specifically.

Therefore, cells that perform a specific action called each additional recognize antigen only. Although all cells are highly selective recognition of a molecule, the number of circulating lymphocytes so large that they are able to detect almost all substances in the body, both domestic and foreign. It's about recognizing hundreds of millions of different molecules.

immune cells, mainly lymphocytes, cooperate to activate, stimulate and make more precise the immune system. To reach this area, there are different types of cells with different functions: T-cells and B when B cells are activated, they reproduce rapidly (clonal selection) and become plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies in the blood (humoral response) . When antibodies without complying with further micro-organisms (epitopes), join them and form complexes immobilized microorganisms. Later, other cells that are not specific, but can recognize the antibodies, phagocytes these complexes.

In turn, T cells are divided into three categories: Tc (cytotoxic), Th (helper), Ts (suppressor). Although cytotoxic lymphocytes reproduce quickly when it is activated. They do not release antibodies in the blood, but to maintain the antibodies in their membranes and cells use to detect, especially its own body cells infected with viruses or tumor. Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill cells by substances perforin, which produces lesions in the membrane of the target cell and cause death by osmotic lysis (cell response). Lymphocytes of the aid is necessary to activate B cells and Tc which, although they recognize foreign agents, rarely direct action. Suppressor lymphocytes reduce the severity of the immune response.

But does not the immune system attacks the body's cells that autoimmune reaction can damage the body and cause death. How does the immune system between itself and not me? We have seen that B cells and Tc recognize an antigen, do not do anything, but must be activated by an additional cell. A couple of times after the birth of the organization, some of the new cells pass through the thymus where T-cells are cells then were compared with all antigens of the organism (auto-anti-gens). It appears that lymphocytes that recognize an antigen, as they are still immature, he will die. Thus, the autoreactive Th cells are dead, only B cells and Tc have recognized foreign antigens can be activated. The system of cellular cytotoxicity mediated by Th cells is developed as a defense against the infected cells, altered, or deviant. Indeed, B cells and Tc turned against bacteria, even without the consent of the participants.

The B and Tc lymphocytes activated in addition to the production of antibodies and kill foreign cells, multiply rapidly. During cell division, rearrangements often occur in the sequence of genes coding for antibodies. Thus, the antibody in the new cell a little bit different compared to his father mitotic. If the new form is better suited to the antigen, this cell will be persuaded to share more. The next generation of clones is more efficient and, in turn, can lead to more selective variants. This process of clonal selection and more effective immune response. Finally, immune memory cells, ie lymphocytes off ready to be reactivated on the occasion of the meeting with the same antigen.

In addition to Th cells and B, a third population of lymphocytes in the blood and peripheral lymphoid organs have receptors for antigens. These cells have a non-specific defense function is not activated by Th cells, these cells are the oldest part of the immune system and is characterized by cytotoxic activity. For these reasons, called NK, natural killer. In addition to killing viruses, bacteria, infections and neoplastic cells, these cells also regulates the production of other blood cells, red blood cells and granulocytes.

Monocytes are precursors to macrophages. Blood pieces are larger, which, after reaching maturity in the bone marrow into the bloodstream, where they remain in 24-36 hours. Then migrate into the tissues where they become macrophages and move into tissues. In the presence of an area of ​​inflammation, monocytes migrate rapidly from the blood vessels and begin an intense phagocytic activity. The role of these cells is not only in phagocytosis, and also an intense activity of secretion. They produce substances that have defensive functions, such as lysozyme, interferon and other substances that modulate the function of other cells. Macrophages cooperate in the immune system. They expose the body to digest the molecules in the membrane, and present them to more specialized cells such as B and Th lymphocytes.

Source by Priti H

Adenoids and Immune System Health

What is the immune system? Sometimes referred to as the lymphatic system it is an integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products that differentiates self from non-self and neutralizes potentially pathogenic organisms or substances.

What are the adenoids? Adenoids are two masses of tissue at the junction of the nose and throat, which function in the lymphatic system. They are made up of cells that make antibodies (Lymphocytes) to help your body fight infections. Adenoids start enlarging from birth until sometime between the age of 3 and 7. At that point, they will start shrinking and eventually disappear completely sometime during the teenage years.

What are the functions of the adenoids? Adenoids are a sort of front-line defense for the immune system. Children under age five have not fully developed their immune defenses yet and so adenoids block allergens from even entering into the body beyond the nose / throat. Once natural immune boosting abilities start to kick in, the adenoids become less important and eventually shrink and disappear.

What are the risks associated with adenoids? Since adenoids in young children are so soft and immature they are often susceptible to become inflamed or enlarged due to infection. This is especially common in children who sleep with their mouths open and / or have a snoring problem. When adenoids are swollen they can cause difficulties breathing and speaking, and can also block nasal fluids from draining properly. It can also lead to a sore throat and difficulty swallowing.

What are possible solutions to adenoid-related problems? The most common cause of swollen adenoids is infection. Most doctors will prescribe antibiotics to try to eliminate the infection and bring down the swelling. If this still does not work, or the adenoids are simply abnormally large, it may be recommended to have them removed.

If your child is having adenoid-related problems you will need to weigh the benefits and risks associated with keeping them in versus having them removed. And take note that if you choose to have them removed, you will want to focus a lot on taking preventative measure to avoid exposure to illnesses, and help your child to boos his / her immune system health.

Source by Jodi M.

How Alkaline Water Benefits Your Immune System

The food you consume and the polluted air you inhale, create a lot of acidic waste in your body. Even the tap water that comes to your home is not safe as it contains many pollutants, chlorine, fluorine and other minerals in it. Consuming alkaline water benefits your health and improves your immune system.

Alkaline water benefits your health by neutralizing acids and removing toxins from your body. Tap water normally has a pH value of 7 and is neutral. Alkaline water has a pH range of 7.2 to 9 that is safe for the body. The pH value describes the acidity or alkalinity in a water sample. If the body is excessively acidic, there is a lack of oxygen available in your body cells, and you will not be healthy. When your body is alkaline, and it is getting sufficient minerals from the food and drinks to remain alkaline, your blood will function normally. Providing oxygen to the body cells and removing all acidic waste from the body is significant for health.

The extra amount of acid present in your body weakens your immune system and can cause several diseases. On the other hand, if your body is alkaline, it will function better. Alkaline water acts to neutralize the acids present in the body and enables it to flush out the toxic, acidic waste.

Alkaline antioxidant water can be prepared in a number of ways. One of the best and economical ways is by ionizing the water. Ionized water is alkaline, rich in antioxidants and is free from bacteria as well as other volatile organic substances such as chlorine, fluorine and harmful trace metals present in tap water. It also contains an excess of oxygen atoms and retains healthy minerals. Ionized alkaline water benefits the health as it makes the passage of water between your body-cells easier. Alkaline water provides oxygen to the body cells to get rid of toxins. Antioxidants are important to improve your health. The ionized water has a higher antioxidant level, and is more beneficial for your health and immune system. ORP signifies the Oxidation Reduction Potential of ionized water and measures the antioxidant level of ionized water. A higher antioxidant level in the ionized water implies that it is better for your health. The alkaline ionized water is more beneficial than clean water to save you from abdominal complaints and chronic diarrhea, and it shows a better overall improvement. Alkaline mineral water reduces bone resorption. Ionized water protects the body against oxidative damage to protein RNA and DNA.

Alkaline water benefits your body to fight the aging process and numerous degenerative diseases. As alkaline water is more easily absorbed into your body-cells, it reduces the build up of acidic waste in your body and makes it less susceptible to degenerative diseases including gout, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, high blood pressure as well as heart disease. The high pH water forces the stomach to generate more hydrochloric acid that produces more bicarbonate to go into your bloodstream. With aging, the bicarbonate and as such the alkalinity in the blood stream reduces and the body is unable to neutralize acids. The increase in acid level causes cholesterol, uric acid, kidney stones, etc. Alkaline ionized water also refills the deficit of calcium, prevents bone loss, and also prevents kidney disorders. Thus, the alkaline water benefits your immune system in several ways.

Source by Rachel M Turner

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