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Why Is There Good?

But let’s start with the iconic opposing question: Why is there evil? That opposing question stands as the traditional route into this complex, daunting corner of philosophy. Academicians, philosophers, theologians, social scientists, commentators, and just ordinary individuals have pondered that question endlessly. Start an internet search with “Why is there e… ” and the search engine will generate many and multiple variations of the question “Why is there evil?” without need to even type any further than the initial “e” in evil.

In contrast, the inquiry in the title above, of why is there good, appears a path less traveled. Start an internet search with “why is there g… ” and the question “Why is there good?” will likely not appear.

Why then consider why there is good? For that very reason, i.e. the question of good provides a less common path, and thus a hopefully revealing route, to insights into the deep questions about good and evil.

So, then, why is there good? Why are we blessed with the gentleness of a little child’s smile, the delicacy of a soft Merlot wine, the kindness of stranger to pick up a dropped glove, the heroism of a first responder to enter a fire, the good fortune of minable resources like iron and oil, the wonder of our human intelligence, the refreshing ability to laugh, the exhilaration of sport, the intrigue of a well-written mystery, the joy of family and friends, the basic existence of a stable universe, and many other enjoyable abilities and experiences.

So why is there good?

If the question offers a different path, let’s start down that path, and let’s do so at the beginning, literally, at the hypothesized beginning of our actuality, at the Big Bang.

Basis One for Good: Low Entropy of the Initial Universe

What does the Big Bang have to do with good? What possibly could be the connection? Very simply, the Big Bang, as now hypothesized, produced a very productive state of affairs.

The Big Bang explosion (not really an explosion, but on the assumption we all understand that the Big Bang, in current theory, actually created matter, space and time, while an explosion requires matter, space and time to already exist, we will label the Big Bang an explosion) generated a low entropy condition. By low entropy, we mean very organized, and for the early universe, extremely well organized. And once such a condition exists, once we have an enormously organized initial condition, on the gigantic scale of the early universe, everything else might be just a clock winding down. With so much low entropy, one could argue that good became inevitable.

We do need to take two side tracks here. First, why does low entropy provide an efficient engine for producing anything? We need to touch a bit of physics and define entropy. In basic terms, entropy measures the level of disorder, with low entropy signifying orderly (and thus high entropy signifying disorderly). Now, if we are given an orderly collection matter, aka low entropy, we can produce work.

Take propane gas, the type used for outdoor grills. If we have an organized collection of that gas, say a collection of the gas compressed into a container, we can cook our barbecue. But disburse that gas by opening the valve to the air, and in a few minutes that propane escapes, spreads out, and becomes disorganized. The propane becomes useless. Note the sum of the chemical energy in the disbursed propane remains the same as the propane when collected in the tank. However, once disbursed, we can no longer access that energy since the propane molecules are scattered about.

But a bit more thought shows an issue. Didn’t the initial universe start as disbursed, with everything spread out just about as evenly as possible?

We now need to take our second side track here, to explain what about the early universe provided a low entropy – aka, organized – situation. After all, the early universe, as hypothesized under the Big Bang, did begin with gases evenly spread across many light years of space. Didn’t we just say that when we disbursed the propane, let it spread out, that increased entropy. So how can the early universe have a low entropy if all the gas is widely and evenly disbursed?

Our propane scenario lacks one essential item, gravity. Though gravity exists in our propane scenario, the amount of matter involved is too small for gravity to be a factor.

Once we scale up to astronomical distances, and astronomical quantities of matter, gravity becomes significant, and as such enters into entropy considerations. Gravity adds an element to entropy calculations that turns conditions upside down. Low entropy, in the face of gravity, now involves uniform dispersal of matter.

Think of a collection of small magnets on a drum head. Lay then down carefully, evenly spaced. Hit the drumhead. The magnets collect together (or alternately push further apart – the exact reaction depends on the alignment of the poles of the magnets when you placed them down). Though not a precise analogy, this magnet scenario allows us to grasp that a uniform distribution provides low entropy in the face of an attractive force.

This provides a set of rather long side tracks on why the universe provided low entropy, given its uniform distribution.

And low entropy, as discussed, allows for production of work. Given the size of the universe, the amount of work towered to nothing less than spectacular, almost unimaginable. The low entropy universe generated an essentially innumerable large number of stars and planets, with each star pumping out gargantuan amounts of energy, and with each planet containing a rich palette of materials and conditions. And this continued and continues for billions of years. With this tremendous scale and range of work output, life and intelligence likely emerges almost inevitably, and with life and intelligence emerges good.

That stands as the key. The low entropy of the initial universe enabled so much work for such a long time across such a large expanse that good essentially emerged by inevitable chance.

If the universe had not been uniformly distributed, say if the Big Bang produced large star-size clumps of iron, few if any stars would have ignited, and the universe would be a dark, lifeless place. One might label that good under some definition, but by most considerations a lifeless, cold, dark universe would not contain good by our common sense of the word.

Basis Two: DNA

The low entropy of the early universe does provide favorable – immensely favorable – conditions for the work production, enormous work production on a grand scale. With all the change and dynamism resulting from that work output, the emergence of good becomes highly probable, if not essentially inevitable.

But unfortunately not something we can demonstrate. Modeling the universe, at least at the detail required to test for the emergence of good, still lies beyond, well beyond, our scientific capabilities. So though conceptually plausible, we can not definitely declare low entropy the basis for good.

And even if we could so demonstrate, even if the low entropy condition, at the scale of the universe, inevitably produced good, we might desire a more proximate cause for good.

So let’s shorten our time horizon. What other phenomena, more recent, provides a key to the emergence of good. Well, we have a tacit assumption that life is necessary for good (this assumption can be argued, but for now let’s accept it). So what enabled life?

The appearance of DNA (for conceptual simplicity we will consider RNA to be included here, without need to mention the interplay of RNA and DNA, or the likelihood that RNA preceded DNA) provides such an enabler. DNA provides a mechanism for the work of the universe to be converted to repeatable algorithms, and for improvements in those algorithms to be incrementally added.

You stand in your kitchen, energetic. You randomly pull ingredients from everywhere – shelves, pantry, refrigerator, freezer, utility closet – then mix them in random ways in random proportions, and then you process them randomly – cutting, beating, mixing, freezing, baking, microwaving – for random lengths of time. On the trust that you did this randomly (so for example, you would not stop if your random efforts involves putting cayenne pepper and dishwasher powder into a California burgundy), this random process would rarely produce an item you would dare serve to guests.

But if you started writing down menus for the occasional palatable outcome, then you have recorded a repeatable algorithm.

We can consider natural processes in the same manner. Nature, driven by the work produced from the low entropy state, randomly created astronomical objects (stars, comets, planets, moons, meteors, and so on), and then on a small scale randomly mixed molecular constituents together (water, gases, inorganic and organic chemicals). In this randomness, complex objects likely appeared which we would label as alive.

But absent DNA (or equivalent), and despite the tremendous work available in the low entropy, the universe would not have been able to sustain the fleeting life-like complexity. Absent DNA or its equivalent, no recording process would exist to pass on the complexity into the future. The life would dissipate.

DNA, or some equivalent, changes the creation/destruction cycles. DNA stores algorithms, and thus can continue into the future the processes that create complexity. Just like a menu turns cooking from a hit-or-miss proposition to a predictable effort, DNA turns random natural combinations of life into sustainable life processes.

In a further marvelous twist, DNA has embedded itself in a reproduction cycle that not only stores the existing algorithms, but adds improvements, discards detriments, and adapts to changes. We know that phenomena as evolution, i.e. the host living entity for the DNA reproduces the next generation only to the degree the host’s features allow it to sustain itself in the current generation.

Why does DNA provide a possible key to the good? DNA, or similar information storage structure, enables life. Absent DNA (or equivalent) and given the complexity of life, random natural processes would only in sporadic and isolated circumstances create life, and then almost certainly not sustain it.

And as implied before, from a metaphysical perspective, for this discussion, good implies life. A lifeless universe could be considered good, but we are asking the question of why is there good, and if life didn’t exist, we wouldn’t be here to ask it. So we will hold the postulate, for right here, that good implies the existence of life.

Basis Three: Human Intelligence and Culture

Low entropy and DNA provide an interesting, and conceptually logical and supportable, foundation for good. They do not, from a practical viewpoint, provide one that is a conversationally compelling. Why is there good, someone asks. You respond that good emerges from the initial low entropy state of the universe. As logical as that might (or might not) be, such a response would likely be greeted with skepticism or a blank stare.

More importantly, and more scientifically, while low entropy and/or DNA might enable life, and life might be good, life doesn’t imply by itself the emergence of one critical component of the good, at least in this discussion. That would be an ability to evaluate and appreciate what is good. Intelligence is needed. And just as we can not yet model the universe to determine definitively if good is inevitable from low entropy, we can not yet model evolution with sufficient detail to determine definitively if human-level intelligence is inevitable, given DNA and life. Evolution has produced millions of species, but only one, humans, has gained the capability to discuss good.

So let’s again shorten our time frame. Low entropy appeared some 13 billion years ago, and DNA arose as much as 3 billion years ago. We can now turn to an emergence critical to good that appeared as recent as several millenniums in the past, or at most several tens of millennium. That would be the emergence of human culture.

We need now to take another side track, and cover explicitly an item only touched on in passing – what do we mean by the good. A quick scan for a definition of good shows an easy dozen, and on some sites several dozen, different meanings or shades of meanings.

Our starting paragraph for this article highlighted the question of why is there evil. When that question is asked, the question generally implies why do events occur that disrupt, harm and/or destroy the human fabric. “Why is there evil?” implies questions such as why is their crime, why is there disease, why are there disasters, why are there hate and discord, why is there war, why do we suffer.

Our quest here involves exploring those questions but from the opposite direction by asking why is there good. Thus in our focus on the good, we are not asking why is a screwdriver a good tool, or why does a hybrid car achieve good gas mileage, or why does cotton make a good fabric. Those are functional and utilitarian senses of good, not good in the sense of uplifting the human spirit, or fulfilling human goals, or advancing the human intellect. Here we aim to juxtapose our angst over the horror of evil, with an equally weighty consideration of why there is good.

Our angst over evil stems from its destructive impact on our human core; and our regret and despair over its existence; and our first person pain when we are its victim; and our evaluation that evil should be eliminated and avoided just due to its intrinsic nature. So good, to be in an opposing juxtaposition, must involve something constructive to our core spirit; something we don’t regret but desire to exist; something that provides first person pleasure or fulfillment; and something we aim to achieve due to its intrinsic worth and value.

Thus arises the proposition that human culture, and the emergence of human culture, provide the basis for good. Human culture accelerated mankind’s conceptual and social advancement, creating both the intellectual tools to understand good, and the complex societies required to both achieve and appreciate good.

If we are looking at good as the antithesis of evil, then mankind in its development of culture created both the means to achieve good, and the acumen to comprehend good and to understand its value.

Could pre-cultural human groups have good? In a general sense yes, but not really in the specific sense defined here. Good occurred in those groups, as in good harvests. But absent an extensive culture, including language in some form, it is unlikely early man seriously pondered or even knew the concept of good, nor thought in general terms of values, nor set their life objectives based on noble ideas of the good.

Basis Three – Addendum: Social Evolution

So we have our third candidate for the foundation of good, i.e. human culture. Human culture appears a reasonable basis for good, and we might agree that human culture enables good, and thus creates the environment where a young adult sets his or her sight on the nobility of becoming a first responder, where a philanthropist donates millions to charity, where a stranger returns a dropped wallet to its owner, and where an adventurer climbs a high peak for the awe, exertion and beauty.

Implicit, however, in our citing of human culture as the basis for good might be the assumption that humans built the culture, that mankind through its free will, good intentions and noble vision created culture, and thus good. Culture contains sophistication and complexity, and that sophistication and complexity arose through the focus, volition and intention of mankind. The good came from the goodness of mankind.

But let’s not be presumptuous. Biological evolution progressed and progresses without direction or intent. No guiding consciousness (absent a transcendental intelligence, which we will get to) directs biological evolution. Life emerged unwilled and undirected.

If we took several thousand robots, lacking consciousness or will, but programmed simply to create optimal conditions for their existence, continuation and functional improvement, would they create culture? Might they invent many critical aspects of culture, i.e. language, division of labor, law, planning, currency? Further, could not altruism, and cooperation, and appreciation, emerge in a robot society, not out of any nobility or empathy of robots (they would have none), but simply due to the productive and beneficial impact of such attributes. We can imagine even further. Might robots, after sufficient time, invent art and music, not due to any appreciation of beauty or intrinsic attraction to form (they would have none) but due to the improvements art and music algorithms create in their underlying capability to create useful algorithms?

I would say yes to all those possibilities. No free will or values or consciousness would be necessary.

So we might need two conceptions of human culture as foundations for good. One conception starts with humans and humanity containing good inherently within their consciousness, intellect and free will. This conception involves the emergence of good from the noble characteristic of humanity.

But we could also have a second conception. In this conception, the good emerges from a social evolution that proceeds as mechanically as biological evolution. Mankind did not have a guiding intentionality or morality or internal goodness. Rather our cultural advancement rested and rests on unintentional steps guided only by those steps’ ability to sustain culture, i.e. randomness stumbling forward.

Basis Four: Superior/Guiding Intelligence

Our fourth foundation for the good takes us into tricky territory. We now consider whether the good emerged from the guidance and intervention of an external and superior intelligence. In a more familiar statement, we ask did God create the good.

Why venture into this part of the metaphysical arena? Because despite any caution, or ground rule, or logic, that warns to keep the spiritual separate from the philosophical, God stands as the gorilla in the china closet. Too many individuals believe in, and too much of history dwells on, and too much of our current cultural content involves, this entity labeled God.

Before we react positively or negatively to the postulate of God creating the good, let’s explicitly define God for our discussion. The very reason we must consider God, i.e. the ubiquity and historical impact of the concept, means each and all come to the discussion with long-considered (and dare say in cases engrained) conceptualizations and evaluations.

For our considerations here, a God should have these characteristics

  • Exhibit intelligence superior to modern humans
  • Exist outside our current time-space actuality
  • Possess consciousness and values
  • Influence human events

The God figures of the current organized religions fit, in general, within this definition. So for example a God that exists as a spiritual being, outside time and space, offering us salvation through grace, and hearing and answering our prayers, aka a God like a Christian God, fits.

But that would not be the only conceptualizations that fit. Consider, within the definition, God could be messages transmitted across time from advanced humans a hundred thousand years in the future. These advanced humans transmit these messages to selected individuals, in a sophisticated but covert manner. These receiving individuals judge they have received messages from God.

How does that fit the definition? We certainly might suppose humans hundreds of thousands of years in the future would have vastly superior intelligence. And to the degree that civilization can send information across time, then that civilization has utilized a time-space actuality outside any we currently can access.

Why wouldn’t future civilization just tell us who they are? Good question, but circular time paradoxes may require extreme subtlety by future civilizations in sending messages backward. Is time message travel a realistic possibility? The quantum world has and continues to reveal itself as strange place, so message transfer across time wouldn’t be outlandish. Why do they do this? Because the future civilization understands circular causality and sending back messages triggers superior human advancement.

Is this formulation of God too unconventional? No more so than the actual formulation of the Christian God.

Let’s take another example. God could be a mathematical model determined and set in motion by an advanced extra-terrestrial civilization, or consciousness existing in alternate dimensions or composed of alternate matter.

This example, though on the edge of feasibility, has threads in science fiction. For example, the Foundation series, by Isaac Asimov, builds on such a mathematical model called psychohistory, a postulated socio-psychological science that can predict the grand sweep of cultural advancement. Science fiction is just that fiction, but science fiction (at least in the case of what I will label as hard science fiction) generally contains sufficient plausibility for the reader to assess it could happen.

But has science, and logic, and human rationality, shown God not to be a supportable concept. Do we need God at all as the basis for existence? Doesn’t God just add baggage?

Let me return to the Asimov foundation series. Our God concept based on that series would involve an intelligence superior enough to predict the future. Let’s postulate this superior intelligence, working in time cycles unknown to humanity, works to direct mankind through minimal interventions. This intelligence, just like in the Foundation series, could even use traditional religion as an intermediate step, almost a subterfuge in the grander scheme. That is important – our current religious conception of God could be a partial, rudimentary, or even just diversionary step by the actual god.

Now, as many might point out, and as I would admit, the Asimov Foundation existed inside our actuality. But as just hypothesized, the keeper of psychohistory would not of necessity need to be in our actuality. An advanced and or extra-terrestrial civilization, based on a silicon-like fabric (aka computer-like), might think thousands and millions of times faster than humans. As such, we could consider that to be fitting our definition of being outside our current time-space actuality.

Alternately, I will cite Star Trek, with Q Continuum, with the Q Continuum fitting broadly within the definition of God given above. So God could be a Q Continuum like set of beings, implementing a psychohistory type plan with a minimal set of interventions. (So the periodic appearance of saviors would represent one type of occasional intervention.) Star Trek stands a science fiction, but I would again offer that science fiction of the type of Star Trek needs enough plausibility for us to conceive the scenario might exist.

Now, some might claim proofs that no God can exist. I would also offer caution about proofs about the non-existence of God. Most proofs relate in general to the traditional God conceptions, and we have just covered that God could have manifestations significantly different. Further, even for the traditional God, proving his (or her or its) non-existence involves proving a negative, a very arduous and error-fraught task. Just proving we don’t need a God, by saying for example we don’t need a God to explain evolution, doesn’t prove the lack of existence or intervention of a god. (I don’t need a private jet for vacation travel, but still might have used one.)

Why this discussion. As we think of good, the generic concept of God should remain on the table. I would offer that logic so dictates. We can not be sure we can disprove the existence of God, especially considering God could exist in ways unlike traditional Gods.

Finally, let’s not reject the possibility of a God because actively considering God passes a judgment that one lacks logic and sophistication, or indicates one has insufficient education or intellect, or one has deceived oneself in the face of science. Just like multi-universes stands as a currently plausible possibility, God by the generic definition above stands as a hypothesis not yet disproved, and I would judge it faulty to too readily discard God.

But while I argue we can not reject God, as defined here, as a source of good, we must evaluate that proposition through logic, evidence and reason. Faith, prayer, belief, self-revelation, sacred texts, prophetic sayings, historic tales and other spiritual mechanisms proffered as insights into God, and God as the source of good, stand as evidence, but evidence to be evaluated through verification, consistency, literary analysis, objectivity and so on.

Good as a Reflection on Evil

We have walked down the path of some possible bases for the existence of good. We covered four. Others might exist.

But our original, first thought was about evil. And we have surveyed the bases for good motivated by a desire to look at evil, and good, from an alternate perspective.

So what now is that perspective?

Given that there is existence (i.e. we will bypass a discussion of why is there something rather than nothing), I will argue that our discussion of the bases for good demonstrates that the existence of good vs. evil is just happenstance. Good has come to existence, and evil has come to existence, in the same manner a sequence of balls rolling down a triangular array of nails creates a random distribution of balls across the bottom.

The existence of good and evil emerged as happenstance.

Why do I come to that conclusion? The low entropy of the universe, from our current understanding, is a fortuitous situation. Absent our finding that the universe must be as it is, low entropy is good luck. So to the degree low entropy serves as the basis for good, then good occurs due a bit of luck.

I would argue that similarly, that the emergence and structure of DNA, and the appearance and organization of human culture, are just happenstance. If we ran our universe multiple times, or alternate universes, would DNA and culture always arise?

And if they did, would good always arise? Let’s assume humanity is not currently a collection of zombies, and thus can evaluate and appreciate good and suffer the angst of evil. But if we reran the universe, could we not conceive a universe just like the current one (low entropy, DNA and culture), but where humanity is a collection of zombies, or robots.

So if we ran the universe multiple times, I would offer we can not be sure good would arise, or evil. Good is not essential or fundamental. It follows from the mechanical/physical conditions of the universe.

Is good from God a different situation? I would say no. The existence of God is simply a fortuitous event. If God exists, and caused good, then we had good fortune. If God doesn’t exist, and we have good, well then we wouldn’t be surprised. Our current thinking includes scenarios where God is not necessary for our existence, nor for good. At the same time, our current thinking doesn’t preclude God either, so whether or not God caused good could be considered of limited consequence, since either way good can arise.

In our culture, and philosophy, and our search for purpose, good and evil often carry with them tremendous metaphysical connotations. Mankind works to create holistic paradigms with which to feel comfortable about the existence of good and evil. Good and evil become the basis for conclusions about the nature of existence and the content of the transcendental. We connote and impress meaning and purpose on the existence of good and evil. We create philosophical and theological structures into which to fit good.

And that is all reasonable and proper.

However, this survey of the good, this walk down the path of the causality of good, points to good emerging via good fortune, as an outcome, as an almost mechanical result of the physics and chemistry and biology of actuality. Good occurred not because existence inherently contained good, or the metaphysical structure of reality contained good as an essential and primal element. By this walk, good didn’t precede existence, or have a reality that transcended or caused existence. Good was not and is not primal, fundamental. Rather, good is a by-product of happenstance.

Good is accidental.

This conclusion provides a rather dry, lifeless outlook on good (and by extension evil.) For us, we would like good to stand, well, as something good, intrinsically worthy, a state and process primal, pre-existing, basic. We would want good to have a noble metaphysical stature. We would want good to be inherent, fundamental, a first principle from which concepts flow.

But the conclusion here, a conclusion that good has no more inevitability or purpose than red being the color of an apple, could grate our sensibility. This conclusion, that good is accidental, a by-product, appears to degrade good.

But I would offer this. If good, and by extension evil, do not carry ponderous weights, if they stand as random parts of actuality that are just probabilistic outcomes, maybe that is good in itself. If good and evil don’t precede reality, but flow accidentally from reality, maybe we might and should welcome that.

For then we, mankind, might not blame ourselves for the existence of evil. Good and evil might not be our intrinsic fault; rather they just are. Good and evil may not reflect our inherent nature, or be artifacts of our purpose or meaning; rather they just are.

So we should continue to seek the good, and eliminate the evil, but without the weight of any overarching burden that humanity, or you or I, are battling something deep in existence, or the alternately without grand thoughts that we are pursuing something inevitable in the fundamental nature of our purpose.

We seek good simply because we are fortunate enough to have it, and to be able to create it, and to enjoy it.

A flower exhibits beauty and brings joy. In that moment of appreciation, we don’t (generally) dwell on its philosophical meaning or implications. It is just good. That is the same for good itself. By this walk, good is just good, and leave it at that.

Source by David Mascone

Hydrolyzed Collagen, Protein Hydrate

Protein Hydrate is a Hydrolyzed Collagen that helps regulate the body's metabolic state by providing enzymatically digested collagen of a low molecular weight that is rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract. It provides important amino acids often missing in most diets. Normal food sources provide significant amounts of trytophan, cysteine, methionine, and histidine, however the protein Hydrate formula has high amounts of glycine, lysine, and proline that are often found in low amounts or are even missing in other food sources or supplements. Protein Hydrate becomes important as a dietary supplement (along with a normal diet of other proteins) since age induced wear and tear of the connective tissues increases as we age.

This Protein Hydrate contains high levels of the amino acid glycine, which helps the liver detoxify stored chemicals. It has also been helpful in speeding recovery from injuries.

This formula is an animal based Hydrolyzed Collagen protein powder from grass fed cows which contains biologically active peptides. This protein formula works best when taken on an empty stomach away from food, and then waiting 20-30 minutes before eating anything. It can be mixed with juice or warm tea, and it is absorbed faster when it's not mixed with other fluids that contain proteins or amino acids.

Hydrolyzed Collagen is exceptional because it has a molecular weight less than 1000, and this low weight results in extremely rapid absorption from the intestinal tract.

The rapid speed of absorption and the distinct spectrum of amino acids in this formula has a positive impact on a large number of metabolic pathways. It has been found that many people will experience immediate positive effects within 5-18 minutes of consumption when taken on an empty stomach. For example, tests have been done with a number of individuals using 2 tablespoons of the proprietary formula mixed in juice, and some of the effects not within 15 minutes of consumption include: improved mental alertness, mental clarity, concentration, and energy. Some people have experienced a short period of dizziness of 3-5 minutes because it causes a sudden release of brain neurotransmitters, however it is not dangerous and passes quickly.

Long term effects: supports repair of musculoskeletal injuries, reduces inflammation, improves hydration of the connective tissues of the body, improves joint flexibility, improves signal induction, improves sleep, reduces pain, improves cellular calcium uptake, increases metabolic rate, and improves the quality Of hair and nails.

Many athletes and body builders take protein supplements regularly to support muscle repair and growth, however most protein supplements do not contain the raw materials needed by the body to repair corresponding connective tissue damage. Protein Hydrate Hydrolyzed Collagen taken as a food supplement provides the proper ratios of amino acids needed for collagen production. In addition, hydrolyzed collagen contains naturally occurring glucosamine and hyaluronic acid which supports connective tissue repair as well as providing hydrating and volumizing effects due to the natural ability of connective tissues to hold water.

Roland Moskowitz, MD, notes that partially hydrolyzed collagen has been used as a food for at least a millennium. Collagen hydrolysate products are considered GRAS ie, Generally Regarded as Safe, by the Food and Drug Administration. Collagen hydrolysate is now being used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. The fact that it is considered to be a food with a high level of safety makes it useful for long term use.

What is the function of Collagen and why do we need Hydrolyzed Collagen? Due to the limited food choices in our diets and the wear and tear that occurs with strenuous activity and aging, many people became depleted of the important amino acids needed to make Collagen. This can be a significant problem in individuals involved in strenuous physical activity such as athletes and construction workers.

Collagen is the most abundant fibrous protein found in the body, but in a dietary supplement unprocessed collagen is not digestible. Protein Hydrate provides predigested collagen that contains both free amino acids as well as peptide fragments (smaller chains of amino acids) that are rapidly absorbed through the walls of the intestine into the blood stream. These components are used by the body to build structures and to regulate the functions of the cells. Up to 30% of all protein in the body is collagen, and up to 70% of the proteins in the connective tissues are composed of collagen. In the body, collagen is made by specialized cells in the skin, ligaments, bones and cartilage. The protein Hydrate formula also provides additional amounts of the amino acids glycine and glutamine. Glucine supports detoxification and glutamine helps the cells increase their levels of the energy storage molecule creatine.

How does it work?

The body's natural ability to repair supporting connective tissue (bone, joints, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, skin, hair and nails), an maintain hydration of the cells diminishes after age 25. Hydrolyzed collagen provides the missing link in supplying additional amounts of amino Acids like glycine, lysine, and proline which are specifically needed by the body to build connective tissue structures, and to regulate the functions of the cells. Therefore, free amino acids and small peptides in Protein Hydrate provide the advantages of easy digestion, rapid absorption, as well as metabolic regulatory effects.

What are the benefits?

In addition to providing certain missing nutritional links lacking in most dietary supplements, it provides the specific amino acid building blocks needed to build and repair collagen.

For Athletes and Body Builders: it supports muscle growth, increases metabolism, and provides structural material and nutrients needed for the repair of injuries (cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bones and disks).

Anti-Aging: it provides a positive nitrogen balance which is important in the nutritional support of age relayed degeneration like collagen loss and cartilage damage. It is an excellent food product for individuals with a sedentary lifestyle, as well as the very active.

Inflammation: it provides nutritional support for individuals predisposed to repetitive joint injury, pain and joint discomfort.

Arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis: it contains amino acids needed for bone and joint health.

Skin tone: it provides critical nutrients, and helps support skin strength, texture, as well as thickness. Healthy skin retains moisture better, and is more elastic, and less prone to develop fine lines and wrinkles.

Hair: it provides nutritional support for healthy hair.

Nails: it provides nutritional building blocks for strong nails.

Weight loss: many users have more energy which Promotes a more active lifestyle, thereby promoting weight loss.

Muscle tone and Strength are supported.

Exposure to Toxic substances: the high glycine content of the formula asserts the detoxification process of the liver.

Tissue hydration is supported.

In addition many users report feeling more alert with improved concentration, balanced mood, improved energy and an increased sense of well-being.

Source by Bernd Friedlander

Aluminum Foil Wrap – A Restaurant Owner’s Complete Guide

Aluminum Foil Wrap Background

Almost all US foil manufacturers run their aluminum foil rolls with aluminum alloy #8011. The process starts out with a massive, flat aluminum alloy slab which is progressively cut thinner and thinner until it forms the jumbo rolls from which the smaller food service rolls are cut. There are essentially two categories of foil thickness; standard duty and heavy duty, the latter being more sturdy because it came from a thicker roll of foil, therefore making it significantly more expensive. The quality of foil wrap is primarily determined by its thickness or heaviness, which can accurately be measured by its “gauge”. The metric term for this is “micron thickness”.

Aluminum Foil Thickness and Gauge

Standard (SD): In the US, a true standard foil will be 0.00065 gauge. Rounded up, this is commonly known in the industry as 0.0007 gauge foil. This standard foil gauge translates to at least 16 microns in thickness and is the most widely used gauge of commercial foil wrap today. An economy gauge foil is only 0.00055 gauge or 14 microns.

Heavy Duty (HD): A true heavy duty foil wrap measures in at 0.00087 gauge, commonly rounded up to 0.001 gauge, equivalent to 23.5 microns. 0.001 is most widely used heavy duty gauge within the food service industry. An economy gauge heavy duty foil is only 0.00082 gauge or approximately 20 microns thick.

Extra Heavy Duty (XHD): There isn’t a stronger foil commercially available than this, however it is possible some manufacturers can custom make a thicker foil but it would cost exceptionally high. Extra heavy duty foil comes in at 0.0015 gauge or 35 microns in thickness.

Which Aluminum Foil Roll Should I Buy?

Most US foil manufacturers make a premium brand foil as well as an economy “cheater gauge” version of the same foil. The economy version is for distributors who’d like to reduce costs and pass on those savings to you, but remember you get what you pay for. Unless you’re on a tight budget, it’s wise to avoid the economy brands. There are several reasons for this, the first being that they’re simply not as good as the premium brand version. For example, it might not sound like a big difference between 0.00065 gauge 0.00055 gauge in the standard gauge versions, but you will immediately notice how much thinner the economy brand is in comparison to the premium brand. Economy foil will rip and tear much more easily, and not dispense as smoothly. Will it usually get the job done? Yes, but not always. Is it worth the extra hassle and occasional aggravation? Probably not. Therefore, stick with the good stuff!

For wrapping small food items such as tacos, sandwiches, potatoes, etc… standard aluminum foil is all you need. It isn’t necessary to spend the extra money on heavy duty foil. Standard foil will also work well to cover small containers and cups. However, there are some jobs that heavy duty will work best for. For wrapping large trays, pans, and large food items, then its best to go with a heavy duty foil wrap that’s at least 18 inches long. If you’re using aluminum foil as an oven liner or burner bib, then use heavy duty. Covering your back-splash or grill areas? HD foil. Wrap to cover food in oven/broiler? HD foil. As you can see, heavy duty foil is much more versatile in your kitchen than standard, but try using it only where standard foil isn’t adequate for the job. For that reason, many restaurants stock both standard and heavy duty foil in their kitchens. Extra heavy duty foil is usually used on outdoor grills when food such as ribs or brisket is being slow smoked or grilled. The reason for this is that the thinner it is, aluminum foil will eventually lose its integrity when exposed to intense heat such as an outdoor barbecue grill or smoker. Standard foil will start browning (due to oxidization) and crumble rather quickly. HD foil will hold up much better on the grill or in the smoker, but Extra-Heavy foil will last for hours before it gives way.

Common Size Foil Rolls on the Market

12″ Rolls

  • 12″ x 500′ Standard
  • 12″ x 500′ HD
  • 12″ x 1000′ Standard

18″ Rolls

  • 18″ x 500′ Standard
  • 18″ x 500′ HD
  • 18″ x 500′ XHD
  • 18″ x 1000′ Standard
  • 18″ x 1000′ HD

24″ rolls

  • 24″ x 500′ HD
  • 24″ x 500 XHD
  • 24″ x 1000′ HD

Uncommon Size Rolls

  • 12″ x 500′ Extra Heavy Duty
  • 15″ x 1000′ Standard
  • 24″ x 1000′ Standard

Which Foil Brand is the Best?

During numerous tests and via customer feedback, we found that all of the foil manufacturers listed below make a great premium brand foil wrap. However, the foil itself is only one aspect in determining quality, the second is the quality of the packaging. Packaging is critical. Commercial food service foil will not hold up in your ordinary supermarket type of dispenser box. They are housed in bigger, stronger corrugated cutterboxes and dispensed off of hard plastic rollers. The sturdier the box, the longer it will last in your restaurant kitchen. If a cutterbox isn’t made strong enough, it will rapidly weaken and fall apart in harsh kitchen environments due to grease, moisture, heat, and by wear and tear. However, 2 brands stood out from the pack both in terms of quality of foil and superb overall packaging. Durable and Wilkinson brands make excellent reinforced corrugated cutterboxes, which do not easily dent or bend, or fall apart, thereby allowing for continuous easy foil dispensing. Surprisingly, Reynolds was at the bottom of the pack. While they make the great supermarket brand in Reynolds Wrap, Reynolds food service cutterboxes ranked dead last in our testing as they seem to be on the flimsy side. Pactiv would be our third choice, followed by HFA and Western Plastics.

Manufacturer Product Reference Guide

Item Description………………..Durable…………..Pactiv………….Wilkinson…………Reynolds………..HFA……………Western

12″ x 500′ Standard………………61205………………W11……………125S…………………………………….51205……………..225

12″ x 500′ Heavy Duty……………91205………………W26……………125HD………………..620…………….51208……………..226

12″ x 1000′ Standard…………….61210………………W12…………….121S………………….611…………….11205……………..221

15″ x 1000′ Standard…………….61510………………W14………………………………………613……………11505……………..251

18″ x 500′ Standard………………61805………………W18…………….185S………………….614……………51805……………..285

18″ x 500′ Heavy Duty……………91805………………W28…………….185HD………………..624……………51808……………..286

18″ x 1000′ Standard…………….61810………………W17…………….181S………………….615…………….11805……………..281

18″ x 1000′ Heavy Duty………….91810………………W23…………….181HD………………..625……………11808……………..282

24″ x 500′ Heavy Duty……………92405………………W35……………………………………..627……………52408……………..246

24″ x 1000′ Heavy Duty………….92410………………W25……………………………………..633…………….12408……………..242

Source by Alex Patel

How to Get a Girl’s Attention – The Peacock Theory Exposed

In order to get a girls attention you need to stand out from the mass. People judge by the looks and you have only seconds to demonstrate that you are a man of style. So, first and foremost you have to look at the way you dress:

Is your dress boring or is it interesting and unique? Of course, it doesn’t make sense to dress like a gigolo, because you have to feel comfortable in your clothes.

It’s quite helpful to ask your friends about your outfit (but please don’t be offended if they are critical, criticism will help you much more than a simple “Yeah, you’re the man!”). It’s even better if you find some girls to ask. Simply tell them you want to change your style a bit – girls love all kinds of fashion questions. You can also ask girls on the street how they like your outfit and where you can buy some cool stuff.

If you’ve read the book called “The Game” by the writer and pickup artist Neil Stauss (aka Style), where he describes the pickup community, you are familiar with the “Peacock Theory”. If not, here is an enlightening extract:

“Peacock theory is the idea that in order to attract the most desirable female of the species, it’s necessary to stand out in a flashy and colorful way. For humans… the equivalent of a flashy peacock tail is a shiny shirt, a garish hat, and jewelry that lights up in the dark… ”

That means you can get a girls attention and get her interested in you simply through the way you dress. You think wearing stuff like feather boas, cowboy hats or eye-catching jewelry is silly? Maybe it is. But think about this: How many times have you been approached by someone on your outfit? Not that much? Never? Well, that’s what this stuff is good for – it allows women (mainly shy women) to start a conversation with you. If you have a cool answer and can demonstrate higher value you will most likely get her number. At the same time you demonstrate a high self-confidence wearing this stuff. And women love confident guys.

Source by Steve Wells

Breast Actives Cream

Breasts Actives cream is a cream which can be bought that is designed to make your breasts bigger and perkier. It is supposed to be applied every day to the breasts. Not only is it fitted to make your breasts bigger and perkier it also makes your breasts smoother and more attractive.

It is used as a natural way to get breasts bigger and more eye-catching which for most women who have skinny boyish frames is really appealing. It boasts to be a much better alternative to surgery because there are so many risks involved going down that route.

Breasts Actives is a program that as well as using cream also comes with pills, both products work together to make hormones in the body such as estrogen to react. By doing this it makes women's bodies react to the hormones that causes the breasts to react by getting bigger.

The hormones that are reacted only make the woman's breasts to get bigger leaving the rest of their body unaffected so if the women who decide to use this product are skinny and flat chested they will still stay skinny but have a more enhanced set of breasts.

The Breast Actives cream can make your breasts look so much more eye-catching and appealing. One applied to the breasts the results are noticeable in days as the breasts will feel less rough and smoother and the cream also acts as a kind of moisturizer. This is good value for your money as not only does it create bigger breasts it also makes them more appealing to the touch which will make putting on the cream so much more beneficial.

On the website for Breast Actives cream and supplements it lists all the ingredients in the cream which are: Aloe Vera Concentrate in Purified Water, Lanolin, Montanov, Lecithin, Butea Supera Extract, Avena Setiva Extract, Fenugreek Extract, Saw Palmetto Extract, Red Clover Extract, Wild Yam Extract, Damiana Extract, and Muria Puama Extract, Shea Butter, Sepiliftiiii Sodium Hyaluronate Acid, Borage Oil, Sepigel, Retinol-A, Vitamin E & Germall.

It is important that if you are allergic to any of these ingredients then you should not use the cream and that if you are pregnant, nursing, or already taking any medication, consult with a physician prior to use.

Source by Hilary J. Dale

Extreme Relaxation

I can just imagine lying on my stomach, listening to soothing music, and falling into a deep relaxation. As a college student, I often find myself stressed out over all the assignments I have to complete in school. Massage is supposed to relieve anxiety and so I decided to experience it for myself. It looks like there are so many different kinds of massage that at first I felt lost in a world of leisure. A Swedish massage uses long fluid strokes of different pressures over the body, while toning the muscles and improving flexibility and circulation. I thought this sounded very soothing. Sports massages are specialized Swedish massages that help athletes keep their muscles and tissue in good condition and relax from stressful training. A medical massage is a Swedish massage geared towards a certain trouble area. Thai massage incorporated yoga with a light massage by stretching with gentle pressures. Reflexology is an ancient Chinese technique that uses pressure points in the hands, feet, and ears to restore energy flow in the body. It is supposed to flush the body of toxins, relax the muscles and stimulate internal organs. I know after a long day of classes I could use some extra energy and stimulation. I knew my body and mind could use a break from school, but I needed to do some research so that I knew what to expect when I went to the massage studio.

To prepare, I did some research on what to expect from a massage. As I started to search, I was overwhelmed by an array of rules and regulations. It is the job of the therapist to ask the client some standard questions to help the therapist understand the body of his or her client. They will ask why you are getting a massage and for some background information about your physical condition, medical history, lifestyle, stress levels, and if you are already experiencing pain in a specific area. They should discuss with you health goals that massage can help you achieve. It is also appropriate to ask about the certification of the therapist and the training they went through. I was then prepared to ask many questions during each massage.

One type of massage that I decided to experience was just a general relaxation massage. I went to The Pilates Wellness Center where my instructor, Tatiana, suggested that I should get a massage in their new studio to relax my muscles after a strenuous workout. Tatiana works me hard and after I could use some pampering. My therapist's name was Lorraine and she was very willing to answer all of my questions and help me with my project. After my workout, Lorraine led me to the massage room. To start, she asked me the standard questions that I was prepared for from my research. She told me about her certification through the Florida State Massage Therapy Association as well as the training she is continuing going through. Therapists are required to take classes that add up to 24 credits every two years. They are under a strict regimen to continuously be up to the standards.
Lorraine explained that I should take off my clothes and get onto the table, under the blanket. To start, I was instructed to lie on my back and put a pillow underneath my knees. As part of Florida State Massage Regulations, she left the room while I undressed and got placed at the table. This situation was surprisingly not awkward. The therapist was very professional and made me feel comfortable with her. When she came back in I was ready and excited to have my first real massage. First she massaged my head, face, and ears because she was trying to get me to relax a little. The therapist wanted me to get used to her hands and style before she massaged my body. She told me the most beneficial massages for a client are when he or she does nothing and the therapist does everything. As she mentioned this, I realized how important the setting is for a successful massage. I was able to relax with the dimmed lights, comfortable table, and soothing music.

Next, Lorraine started on my shoulders, arms and upper body. She used a cream rather than an oil to keep it less messy. The cream was called BioTone that contained extracts of ivy, which relives soreness in the muscles. On my arms and legs, Lorraine used a technique she called "stripping," which is a firm stroking in one direction. This technique is beneficial because muscles are made up of many fibers and when the fibers are aligned it is easier for blood to flow through and oxygen to get to the muscles. This results cramping and tightness. My right hip was stiff so it needed some extra attention and forceful kneading. Lorraine explained that joints are intolerable to tightness because of the attachment of muscles to bone.

After my therapist had gone over my body once, she asked me to turn over. At first, she focused on my hamstrings because I have a lot of nerve tension that makes the backs of my legs very taut. It was very painful since the nerves are involved as well as the muscles; However, afterwards I felt much better. Lorraine then moved up to my gluteus muscles. She told me that butt muscles are often ignored in a massage but they are one of the most important and strained muscles we use. She left the blanket over me because she explained that one of the many regulations of being a therapist is that the client must be covered at all times with the exception of the part being worked on. It was a little weird having a butt massage but I definitely learned to enjoy it quickly. I never realized how important my gluteus muscles are because I use them for everything I do.

To end, my therapist worked on my back. She used a different technique called Swe-Thai, which incorporates Thai and Swedish massages. As I mentioned before, Thai massage uses different pressures while stretching and Swedish massage uses long strokes to elongate the muscles. She went up and down along my spine to alleviate tension. After 55 minutes, my massage was finished. I could not get up from the table right away because I felt sleepy and extremely relaxed. Now twelve hours later after my tough workout with Tatiana, my muscles do not feel as stressed out as usual. My body feels like paying $ 75 for a relaxation massage, which seemed standard in my research, was well worth it.

The second type of massage that I experienced was a sports / medical massage. I went to the same massage studio as I did for the first one. For some reason, over the past week my lower back had been hurting. When I went in and told Lorraine this I expected her to work mostly on my back. However, she explained to me that I was probably in pain because my hamstrings were tight. At first, it did not make sense to me that my back hurt because of tense hamstrings. My therapist explained that it is common for people with tight hamstrings to have sore gluteus and lower back muscles. I was nervous for her to tough my achy muscles but my therapist quickly put me into the relaxation mode by "stripping" my whole body again and using some reflexology methods on my feet. Lorraine explained that reflexology is really a simple massage method. The feet, ears, and hands are all maps of the rest of the body. Certain points correlation to different parts of the body. Once the feet relax, the rest of the body follows. As I turned over, I knew the pain was coming, ouch!

The first technique my therapist used was a Thai massage. She stretched my legs out to allow her to "work" my muscles. Then Lorraine went to work with a tough Swedish massage. She kneaded and "stripped" my hamstrings and calves. I could tell that she was working hard and putting her whole body weight into the massage. There was definitely A LOT of pain while she was massaging me but I trusted her as a professional. She kneaded my muscles with a lot more force than in my first experience. After she finished my hamstrings, my therapist continued up to my gluteus muscles and then my lower back. She concentrated on this area until the massage was over. This is what made it more of a sports massage because Lorraine focused on a certain area to relate pain rather than just relaxing all the muscles. Although my muscles felt tired and sore, my back felt much looser and under less pressure. This massage was very different but extremely achievable the same goal, to relax my tense muscles.

For my last massage, I decided to go to a different place and have a whole new experience. I went to the Sanda Gane Day Spa for an aromatherapy massage at a price of $ 75. When I first got there, I was invited into a back room where massage patients are allowed to relax and talk to the therapist. My new therapist's name was Cynthia. She sat down with me and we went through the standard question and answer session. She introduced me to three varieties of scents that I could choose from: citrus, floral, or spicy. Floral scents are used for soothing the senses, spicy for awakening them, and citrus somewhere in between. I thought citrus would be invigorating after a long and tiring day. Cynthia then left me in the sitting room while she prepared my massage therapy room. The waiting room was really dark and had a gorgeous fountain that was bright orange with steam rising from it. Beautiful bouquets of flowers were all around the room, which made me feel welcome in a new place. When my room was ready, Cynthia invited me back into the treatment room. She left me alone to prepare for the table while she got me a glass of water to keep me hydrated.

To my surprise, when I got on the table, the mattress was heated. It was very relaxing upon lying down because I did not get that chill when you first crawl under cold sheets. Cynthia came back in and I was eager to begin. I could instantly smell the citrus oils she was using. Since I was having an aromatherapy massage, my therapist used only Swedish massage techniques. For 50 minutes, I lay there while she used long, fluid strokes all over my body. I was so relaxed, I felt like I was going to fall into a deep sleep but the spotted oils kept my senses awake. When she told me I was done, I was disappointed it was over. I felt utterly relaxed and completely loosened up. I do not think I have ever felt better in my life.

I feel like all of my massages accomplished the goal I had set out for in the beginning. Both of my therapists were very professional and highly qualified. The sports massage had the longest lasting effect because the problem areas are targeted and worked out more intensely. I felt great after my first relaxation massage but a lot of the concentration was on learning about the techniques and Lorraine demonstrating them for me. The aromatherapy massage was less involved and more mechanical. I did not learn as much from the Day Spa as I did from the Wellness Center. If you are feeling pain in any particular area, I urge you to get a massage massage and share with the therapist any information you can give them. They will help you relate the soreness in your muscles. The American Massage Therapy Association has a list of certified therapists on their website ( to help you locate one in your area. If you are a typical student, who is just really stressed and can not find a way to unwind, you should try any kind of relaxation massage. My whole body was suffering from the stressful effects of school. The massage helped my mind and body to be calm. Massage is an incredible experience and I recommend it to anyone who feels like the pressure of school has become overbearing and a threat to your wellness.

Source by Krista Weisman

Upgrading Your Software – 5 Things to Consider

Thinking Of Upgrading Your Software?

Think Again!

No, I don’t mean “don’t do it” I mean think again.

Why do you want to upgrade and who will it affect? I recently had to make that decision myself about upgrading from Office 2002, so I am sharing my own thought processes.

5 Things to Consider:

1. Others Will others be affected by the change? Will employees, vendors, customers, clients or service providers, have difficulties interfacing with you? Remember, if you make it difficult for people to work with you, they may choose to go elsewhere!

2. Compatibility Are there programs that you simply must use in the course of your business? Will the new software be compatible? If file sharing is something you do, will others that share your files have problems accessing what you have done with their older versions of the same program?

3. “Buggy” Software

Some software is notoriously “buggy” when first released. Others work like a charm. Do your homework. If the one you are considering is one that has a tendency to be “buggy” do you have the patience to work through the problems until a service pack is provided to address those issues? If not, you may want to wait until those issues have been addressed.

4. Opinions

If you belong to a network of people in your industry, ask their opinion. Get a consensus based on people with your same skill level and level of patience. Is this something you can quickly pick up on your own, or are you going to need to take a class or e-course to bring yourself up to speed?

5. New and/or multiple computers

This is the one case where it is more important (from a financial standpoint) to determine if you should downgrade the new computer or upgrade the old, or perhaps run both versions on different computers. Think long and hard how you can best serve: Your customer base, your patience level, and your personal learning curve. If you have one or more computers running on an older platform it may be financially sound to consider a downgrade for the newer computer. On the other hand, having the ability to switch back and forth from older to newer might make it a win-win.

Ultimately, the decision is yours! As for myself, I made the decision to go with the newer software. This decision was made because I had to replace my desktop and my laptop within a few months of each other. Both computers came with Vista. I asked my colleagues for their advice and several of them have said, once they got used to it, they preferred Office 2007 to older versions. Fortunately, my client base is such that an upgrade will go unnoticed. I considered taking classes through the local Adult Education, but have set that on the back burner for now. I know from past experience this is a great resource for bringing my skill level up to date.

Community Colleges and Adult Education: A great way to increase your awareness and update your skills. Using your favorite search engine, type in the name of your city and either “Adult Education” or “Community College” to find a school close to you. Most will have the curriculum online and many offer online courses as well.

Source by Cheryl Harless

The DNA of a Leader

I recently watched Brian Williams, the Channel 4 news anchor, discuss what he called “the DNA of the athletes” during a break in the Winter Olympics. He said people who competed in dangerous sports, whether in the Olympics or NASCAR racing, shared similar qualities. These athletes were energized by the challenge: the riskier the better, the more seemingly unattainable, and the harder they trained. Further, Williams said it was in their DNA and they are not like us, aka “normal people.”

So I started wondering about the DNA of successful leaders. Did they have ingrained traits that enabled them to achieve their goals and grow their enterprises faster and farther than their peers?

It sure seemed so. What, for instance, did Bill Gates, former GE CEO Jack Welch, and Virgin Atlantic’s Richard Branson, have in common?

I found answers after my second reading of Malcolm Gladwell’s book “Outliers.” Gladwell points to the propitious timing of Gates’ birth, for example. Gates was able, through luck and being in the right place at the right time, to get free computer lab time to learn about desktop computing. He spent more than 10,000 hours focused on everything to do with the new field of desktop computing.

I then wondered how we might translate Gladwell’s hypothesis and learn what made a successful innovator? Were there common threads running through the success of the people he profiled?

And what about the rest of us, who are not lucky, or born at the right time and place?

Here are some correlations that occurred to me:

• Find a field of study that you consider fun. Let your curiosity guide the way. And then learn everything you can about your chosen subject. If you truly love it, it won’t seem like work. That will make the next step manageable.

• Spend at least 10,000 hours perfecting your skills in your chosen field. If you are going to lead people you need to know your field from top to bottom. Yes, that takes years, but what else are you doing that’s more important?

• Surround yourself with smart people. All of Gates’ early influences were teachers and friends who had the same, or greater, passion and intelligence.

• Listen, read and learn from role models who have gone before you. Don’t be afraid to approach someone you admire in your field, asking for 10 minutes of their time a month to get their perspective.

• Be willing to experiment, fail and try again. Nobody is successful 100% of the time. The more failures/rejections you collect, the closer you are to success.

• Develop values to live by. Do you want to be known for fairness? Integrity? Transparency? Boldness? Creativity? You can build your reputation by leading with your values.

• Find ways to help others be successful. This will bolster your network and come back to you triple fold. The best leaders start with asking their employees what they need to succeed in their jobs.

Notice how many of the above correlations cover the same ground: hard work and dedication, taking risks, being bold, and inspiring people. These behaviors may not be part of your “DNA,” but they can be mastered. I can’t think of a better use of your time.

Source by Dale Kurow

The Uses Behind Cotton Gloves

You might recognize this type of glove on a variety of professionals, most notably Mickey Mouse impersonators. They tend to be white and be adequate for holding paintings, as they provide natural oils from damaging artwork, but cotton gloves also can be used for gritty jobs that require no more than to keep visible dirt and grime from your hands as a waiter or house cleaner. Most notably as an outlet for white gloves, however, are for arcane show business types, the like who appear in post-vaudevillian forms of entertainment: miming, magic, jazzy and Fosse-inspired forms of musical theater, etc.

The main purpose behind making gloves out of cotton is mostly presentational. As they are porous and allow the permeability of liquids, including body fluids, they are wholly impractical for sterile purposes. However, as a Marine, it is hardly necessary to be sterile to fold a flag, only respectful. The white gloves made from cotton stand symbolically for purity and share the likeness of purpose of a wedding dress; they do more for the beholder on the outside than the ones doing the actual holding.

Practically, the main purpose is in absorbing the oil our skin involuntarily secretes (not too mention smudge prevention), which is white cotton gloves are perfect in holding print negatives and photographs for fear of contamination. Imagine the horror in devaluing an otherwise extremely valuable photographic original of Joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe in a candid setting, for instance, for mistakenly bringing it to an appraiser with having purchased a pack of cotton gloves prior. Of course not having a protective sleeve would be a curious matter alone. A more common example: you own windows (who doesn’t?) and a flat screen television, and want to give of a good first impression to a virginal house guest. Cotton gloves are ideal for removing finger prints from potentially pristine surfaces and not adding anymore along the way. They also make for an under-glove of sorts if you do happen to be allergic to latex and can form a layer of protection beneath latex gloves and still maintain the necessary amount of sterility to carry out a job requiring it (likely not surgery though, given the restricted motility).

Cotton gloves, alone, do offer a substantial amount of movement comparable to knit gloves that allow the formation of snowballs which gortex ones prevent. Germaphobes may revel at this feature in needing the adornment of such to open waiting room doors at the doctor’s office. As a sort of tissue replacement, a pair of cotton gloves offer plentiful protection from standard airborne germs and simple contact ones (and go great with a surgical mask if you want to double your disease prevention). Surface germs that may loosely-habitat dirty specimens, alongside general rust and dirt) would be adequate disarmed of effectiveness, and make a wise precaution for inspectors trying to get a closer look at antiques and foreign objects. Who knows what kind of epidemic was circulating at the time, or in the house, of an antique sewing machine at the time it was used in its prime. Cotton gloves, at the very least, form a padded layer against deceased history and immediate uncertainty.

Source by Richard Reast

Biometric Wall Safe

Many security measures can be effectively used to ensure that your valuables are stored safely. Biometric Wall Safe is one of the famous safes used all over, for people protecting their expensive jewelery or any other valuable documents. These biometric wall safes can be expensive but considering its use, the price should not be a major consideration. The new invention is in essence used for protection of handguns or jewellery or any personal articles in a safe manner. The safe enables better security than other safes in market. This wall safe consist of compartments. One is the main section and other includes hidden compartments. Main storage space can hold larger articles whereas the hidden storage space can hold other small items. The basic thing not in this wall safe is its toughness and resistance due to which it is hard to break.

The safe is of stainless steel. Its specialty lies in the finger recognition ability that captures finger prints to open the safe. This assures 100% authenticity and safe access. Many such safety lockers come with some key combinations that can be difficult to remember while others come with number combinations. This safe uses the fingerprint technology that is easy to operate and the safe will open immediately if it recognizes the fingerprint. This facility will save time. Sometimes more than one person can access the safe as it can identify multiple fingerprints. Biometric Wall Safe can store up to 6 fingerprints in memory. With a single touch you can add and verify a fingerprint or even delete the same.

The wall safe vault is operated with 12 volt battery. This battery is rechargeable with a long life. Fixing up for other battery is not required for a long time. The space required for this safe is less and can be conveniently placed at a suitable place anywhere in the house.

Biometric Wall Safe are available in two types, keypad safe and fingerprint safe. Price range for keypad safe starts from $ 300 whereas for fingerprint safe it is from $ 500 to $ 600. The safety provision made by technology keeps the cost consideration away. It is required to purchase the best brand available in the market. The product with highest accuracy is always preferable that is with minimum or no errors. Errors in biometric locks can be in case of FRR 'False Reject Ratio' or FAR that is 'False Acceptance Ratio'. Selecting safe requires studying the basics of this technology and applying for the best in the market.

Source by John J. James

The 5 Most Common Situations That Require Nonparametric Testing

Nonparametric testing is an essential skill that any business manager or marketer who performs statistical analysis should have. Statistics course normally teach only parametric statistics but there are many real-life data analysis situations in business that require nonparametric analysis. This article will examine the 5 most common situations that require nonparametric testing in the place of parametric analysis.

Statistical procedures are either parametric or nonparametric. Parametric statistical tests require assumptions about the population from which the samples are drawn. For example, many data analysis tools such as the t Test, Chi-Square tests, z Tests, and F tests, and many types of hypothesis tests require the underlying population to be normally distributed. Some of these also require equal variances of both populations.

Sometimes these requirements cannot be assumed. Examples of this would be if the population is highly skewed or if the underlying distribution or variances were entirely unknown.

Nonparametric tools have no assumptions regarding distribution of underlying populations or variance. Most of this are very easy to perform but they are not usually as precise as parametric methods and the Null Hypothesis usually difficult to reject when using a nonparametric method.

When To Use Nonparametric Methods

1) The most important use of nonparametric tools occurs when samples are drawn from populations that are not known to be normally distributed. Parametric methods require that all underlying populations are normally distributed. Parametric testing will produce wrong answers when samples are taken from non-normally distributed populations. Non-parametric testing is one answer for this situation.

2) Nonparametric approaches are often used as shortcut replacements for more complicated parametric analysis. You can quite often get a quick answer that requires little calculation by running a nonparametric test.

3) Nonparametric tools are often used when the data is ranked but cannot be quantified. For example, how would you quantify consumer rankings such as very satisfied, moderately satisfied, just satisfied, less than satisfied, dissatisfied?

4) Nonparametric statistics can be applied when there are a lot of outliers that might skew the results. Nonparametric statistics often evaluate medians rather than means and therefore if the data have one or two outliers, the outcome of the analysis is not affected.

5) They come in especially handy when dealing with non-numeric data, such as having customers rank products or attributes according to preference.

The most widely-used nonparametric tests are:

  • The Sign Test

  • Wilcoxon Signed Rank

  • Wilcoxon Ranked Sum

  • Mann-Whitney

  • Kruskal-Wallis

  • Spearman Correlation Coefficient

My blog contains articles with specific instructions on how and when to do each one of these nonparametric tests in Excel. Nonparametric methods are perhaps more useful than the classic parametric tools which require that samples are drawn from normally distributed populations. Nonparametric testing is rarely taught in statistics courses. That is too bad because nonparametric testing can often be a real lifesaver for anyone who has to analyze data on a regular basis.

Source by Mark Harmon

Major Marketing Ideas To Test Out

The first step towards setting up your business online is purchasing a good domain name and getting a hosting account. Once you have those things in place, you are going to want to look at how to market your pages. You can not get anywhere without this notification. There are some people that will argue against the notion, but you are going to find the truth lies within a variety of different components overall. In the past, the early days of the internet were easy to set up sites and get going with. That's no longer the case. If you plan on publishing a website and seeing a lot of people visiting, you are going to have to look at some major marketing elements that are going to help you. Marketing ideas come in a lot of different methodologies, and there's no "one" solution that is going to pave the way for your audience members and your business to flourish. If you think that there's just one option, you are going to end up missing the bigger picture. If you're on a quest to get more people involved with what you're doing, take time to look at the following elements and test them for your overall push forward.

Streamlined Design

The first thing about website publishing is branding. The brand that you have will need to be focused within the world of design. Your site has to be professionally designed, with streamlined pieces that are going to load fast. If your site does not load fast, you are going to end up losing out over time. One of the main components of SEO is within this category. If your site loads slowly, you will not get anywhere, it's that simple. Design is part of a brand that you are going to want to focus on.

The way your site looks online is not the only thing that you have to focus on. You're going to need to have a mobile version of your page. Mobile usage is at an all-time high today. Millions upon millions of people are using smartphones, tablets, and mobile web elements. If your page does not load with a custom approach on these devices, you will lose out on a captive audience that is growing by leaps and bounds on a regular basis.

Social Media Marketing (Traffic)

One of the most impressive marketing device you need to use is within the confines of social media. If you do not have a social networking presence, then you're stepping outside of the boundaries of what millions of web users are focusing on right now. There's millions of people just waiting to get marketed to a venerable captive audience of sorts, and you should not diminish your forward progress here. It's imperative that you focus on building a good audience here, and get moving within the confines of these pages. You do not need to just login and post a lot of links, you have to work on updating elements, posting interesting images, and linking to your site less and less. Within time, you will find that your influence will grow if you respect the audience here and you work towards building interest in the right span of time.

Paid Elements

There are several things that you can pay for in regards to social media. Look into backlinks, pay per click advertising, banner ads, and much more. You can purchase your influence online and as search engines update their databases, your site will get moving forward with relative ease. Paid options do not have to cost a great deal. They can cost you around 5 cents per click or even less in different networks. Paid options are not something that you should rely on solely, but rather focus on balancing different pieces. If you balance social media, design focused development, and links, you will end up with a positive framework as a result. For those that are not sure about this, make sure that you look for professionals that work within internet marketing collateral and focus on building the right pieces to gain leverage over time. Done right, you could end up with a huge jump in overall marketing prowess.

It's easy to take all of this at face value. However, in order to fully realize the results that you can get within the aforementioned elements, take your time to build marketing collateral slowly. Focus on dealing with the right pieces and you could very well see your marketing ideas flourish amid what works and what does not online today.

Source by Daniel Roso

The First Round Of Real Tests For A Live Kidney Donor

I was booked in for a day of tests at the beginning of November – a few days before my actual 30th birthday. Most of my friends were also hitting 30 at about the same time, and some of them were dealing with it better than others, but for me it was mostly an excuse to have a good time, I think I had about four parties; Rome, London, family and so on.

At about this time only a few of my friends knew about the kidney transplant, and I purposefully kept it that way, because until I got the results of all the tests I would not know if it was definitely going to go ahead. I think it was about this time that my sense of identity started to get a bit fuzzy. You have all these people telling what a wonderful thing you're doing, and boy, you know they're right, because as it slowly dawns on you, the reality of what you're doing, it's really scary. So, in a lot of ways my big birthday party in London was a way to be fabulous and being congratulated for just being me, not what I was doing.

So the first, really embarrassing testing is that you have to collect your urine for 24 hours and bring it to the hospital. Because of the impending operation I had, at about this time, taken to drinking in excess of 2 liters of water a day, and was strangely peeping like a racehorse. I was a bit concerned about the jug they were sending to me, until I realized it had 5 liters written on the bottom. Picking that up from the Post Office was fun I can tell you. I decided to take the day off work, because I really did not want to have to explain a container of wee.

I do not mean to get technical here, but personally my average wee is a lot more than what fits into one of those little tin foil containers that they give you, and if it's more than half full, I swear it's impossible to pour into The jug without spilling it. (The whole thing's a messy business!) Any I ended up doing tiny little wees (about four or five every time I needed to go) and pouring each one into the jug – which was just no fun. I was terrified that I was going to wake up in the night or morning and do a great big wee, forgetting the jug – so I put all the toilet seats at my mum's down and put post-it's on the seat reminding me. There is no way that was something I wanted to repeat.

The worst part was driving down to my mum's for the appointment the next day, with a 5 liter container of wee in the boot of the car. Never mind clean underwear, goodness knows what anyone would have made of it if I had had an accident. Also I could not stop anywhere for a wee on the way down, without taking my jug with me. Luckily I made it without incident, and installed the wee collection in the downstairs loo.

Carrying a sloshing container of about 3 liters of wee into the hospital is also slightly embarrassing, plus I was terrified of putting it down in the wrong place and someone pouring it away – so I hovered with my jug, until finally a sensible looking nurse told Me to put it in the corner.

I have to tell you that first wee after you've finished the collection, when you can just let rip without having to stop every hundred millilitres is total heaven!

Then followed the obligatory blood tests. This time I had come prepared as I always get a little light headed after giving a reasonable amount of blood; I have naturally low blood pressure. The nurses laughed at me again as we sat in the waiting room deciding between Ritz crackers, cheese and onion crisps and Babybels. I was, by now, developing my blood test strategy, which goes like this: Wait for the doctor / nurse to prepare your arm, wait until they squint please at your arm looking for a decent sized blood vessel, and then mention calmly "I 'Ve got quite hard-to-find veins – Dorothy did it last time. " At which point they always call her over.

This is the time that they test you for HIV and Hepatitis, which is not something they do in the first round of tests. For this you have to sign a separate consent form, which is slightly daunting as they have to ask you a whole load of form questions beforehand. Despite being pretty sure that I did not have HIV, as soon as the blood is drawn for this test you can not help but panic – I think that's just human nature.

After the bloods they sent us over to the other side of the hospital for the ultrasound, ECG and chest X-ray.

If you've ever had an ultrasound of certain areas you'll know what the drill is. You have to drink enough water to fill your bladder, and then hold it through the ultrasound, where, helpfully they press quite hard on your abdomen (who is on earth thinking about these things! I swear someone sits around making up the most embarrassing and humiliating Things they can do to you.) So after a cup of tea and a small bottle of water I was once again concentrating hard on not letting it all just gush out.

So you check into the ultrasound department and they give you another humiliating thing – that lovely gown that opens at the back. I believe they let me keep my pants and bra on, which is lucky, because as soon as you get in with the doctor that gown comes off.

First you lie there and they pour clear goop all over your abdomen, I really do not want to say what it feels like (but if you're thinking of giving a kidney you're over 18 so you can probably guess.) Anyway , So then they run the ultrasound thing over your tummy, and finally say, okay you can go to the toilet. You have never seen a person move so fast outside of the Olympic games. Unfortunately I moved so fast that I did not give them time to wipe off the goop, so now my embarrassing look looked like it had an embarrassing accident.

When you go back they pour more goop over your belly, so that they can check that your bladder has completely emptied. (Oh it was completely emptied alright!)

Next comes the fun part (particularly if you have big boobs like me.) You have to lie on your side, with your arm in the air, with yet more goop poured on your side, and do great big breaths to try and lift your Rib cage out of the way so that they can see your kidneys on the scan. The point of this is to check you have two reasonable sized kidneys, and to try and see how many branches (or blood vessels into the kidney) they have.

Sometimes you have great nurses and technicians who treat you like an actual person, then you have people you treat you as a subject. Unfortunately I was having one of those days. First of all the doctor told me off for not breathing (I can assure you that I was – maybe not very deeply – but still). So I started doing great big breaths, and let me tell you – do this for more than a minute and you start to feel

A) light headed,

B) nauseous.

Things improved slowly when the doctor (talking to the assistant) said "There, we've got some lovely blood vessels."

To which I replied "Why, thank you."

When I sat up to turn over he also noted that, as well as a sense of humor, I also had great boobs, at which point he started talking to me properly. It's not that I really needed to know that one of my kidneys was slightly larger than the other, or that the lowest rib was slightly obscuring the blood vessels, but when you're lying on your side, mostly naked, covered in goop, with Your arm in the air and breathing like an asthmatic elephant, it's nice to have a little conversation.

When it was all over I went back to my cubicle to get dressed, still, despite waiting for paper towels this time, slightly sticky. As I walked away I remember feeling really violated, and dirty.

Strangely enough, it was also at about this time that I started having fantasies about one of my male friends, I think it has something to do with wanting to be touched with something other than a professional touch.

I was surprised by the ECG because I was expecting to have to get on a running machine or something so they could check my heart rhythms, but in fact they ask you to lie totally still so they get your resting heart rate. To be perfectly honest, considering the amount of time I had spent in the gym preparation, I was a little disappointed.

The chest X-ray was fine, but as it was the last thing on the day I was just exhausted, I could not eat another Ritz cracker, and constantly going to the canteen for tea and something to eat, I just felt nauseous and All I wanted to do was go home and have a shower.

The X-ray waiting room is something else, full of old men hacking up their lungs. I have never felt so healthy. The worst part was the waiting, and then after they had taken their shots, waiting for them to check they had developed okay before being allowed to get dressed.

Finally they came out, and I had my X-ray and ECG to take back to the renal unit. Frustratingly, despite looking at the test results, the nurses will not tell you if there is something wrong (just in case), so at the end of a very long, very humidating day I went home, not knowing the results of the tests .

I was ready to crash out as soon as we got home, my head was pounding and I felt really sick, but my mum insisted I take a bath (just as well really with all that gloop), andave me a pair of fluffy teddy Bear pyjamas to put on.

It was at about this time that I realized that I unfortunately wanted the results of the tests to be okay, so that I could give my brother Joel the kidney. Despite feeling nervous and cosmically stitched up earlier, things seemed much clearer then.

Source by Pearl Howie

13 Steps to Mentalism – An Overview

If you want to perform “mentalism” you may have heard of a book called “13 Steps to Mentalism”, and for good reason. This book is considered a classic of mentalism – but does it deliver? Just what will you learn from this book?

Well to start, 13 Steps to Mentalism has been around since the 1960’s and was written by Tony Corinda. Originally it was published as 13 different booklets in London. Thankfully it has been published in a single book format containing all 13 steps. The fact that it has such staying power in a market flooded with books and dvds speaks of its quality right off the bat.

Each chapter or “step” in his book describes different techniques or methods that a mentalist can use to perform different acts of mental magic or mentalism. Below I will briefly give an overview of what each step teaches.

Step One – Swami Gimmick

I haven’t know a mentalist worth his salt that didn’t own and frequently use a swami gimmick. They are a ‘must have’ for any mentalist. It is one of the mentalist’s most powerful tools and nearly invisible to the spectator. This step goes over the various types of swami gimmicks available and when to use each one. Corinda describes how to best use these gimmicks while minimizing detection. At the end of this step, he goes into various mentalism effects possible with use of this gimmick.

Step Two – Pencil, Lip, Sound, Touch and Muscle Reading

By means of this step one can make predictions on the basis of gathering sense information from the spectator by means of touch, sound and sight. Pencil reading is watching how the pencil moves to determine what is written without actually seeing what the spectator has wrote. Sound reading works remarkably well with a spectator writing on a chalkboard or perhaps its more modern equivalent, the erasable slate and non-permanent marker. Lip reading is straightforward, but takes practices as does the art of muscle reading. Muscle reading, that is feeling the small changes in muscle tension in the spectator, can be a devastating and very accurate method of prediction if practiced. Sample effects of all these methods are given by Corinda in this step.

Step Three – Mnemonics and Mental Systems

Yes, by learning mnemonics (memory systems), you can perform amazing feats. Of course this will help if you want to perform some astounding magic using a deck that is memorized. Additionally, he teaches some amazing mathmatical feats.

Step Four – Predictions

Numerous techniques for predictions are described, including switches, forces and “stooges”.

Step Five – Blindfolds and X-Ray Eyes

Various types of blindfolds are discussed and how to obtain information while blindfolded. Numerous tricks are described, as well as driving as car blindfolded!

Step Six – Billets

Billets are small folds of paper with information written on them by the spectator. In this section Corinda discusses how to obtain that secret information without your spectators knowing! This step includes various effects that can be performed with billets.

Step Seven – Book Tests

If you’d like to perform mentalism with books, this step is worth its weight in gold! Describes ten different mentalism effects performed with books.

Step Eight – Two Person Telepathy

Two sections are devoted to telepathy, “Major Systems” and “Minor Systems”. Includes discussion on verbal techniques and electronic devices (obviously outdated as it is over fifty years old). Total of eight routines are described.

Step Nine – Mediumistic Stunts

This Step is probably going to be the one you skip over as it is very outdated. But it is still worth the read. Perhaps the most useful is his section on “spirit writing”. Includes other effects as well.

Step Ten – Card Tricks

This isn’t a complete treatise on card magic, but Corinda does list some mentalism effects that can be worked with cards.

Step Eleven – Question and Answer

Divided into two sections: Questions that are unknown and questions that are known. Discusses various techniques on how to obtain information to questions that are unknown. Great introduction to ‘cold reading’.

Step Twelve – Publicity Stunts

Want to ‘market’ yourself as a mentalist? Well, the price of the book is worth it for this step alone! If you want to increase your exposure and reputation as a mentalist, this is the chapter you’ll learn how to do so. With slight modifications this chapter is easily relevant today, although written in the 60’s.

Step Thirteen – Patter and Presentation

Even if you have all the techniques if a mentalist down and you fail in the area of ‘patter’ or presentation – no one will want to watch you perform. This step covers the building blocks of a good performance, appearance, misdirection and more. A very good chapter.

Conclusion: The short answer to ‘is this book worth it’ is a resounding ‘Yes!’ Even if you are not altogether interested in mentalism, this is still a good book for the magician’s library. If you are interested in performing mentalism, then the answer is altogether different – it is a must-have. You will be referencing this book for a long time to come.

Source by Blair K.

Testing Notes the Talents of Local Educators

I have long been a proponent of state and national testing for students. Students move from place to place wherever within a town, state, or across the nation. Because of this fluidity of life, it is critical that all children everywhere have been taught what they need to know to be successful at each grade level regardless of where they live and where they go to school. If we want to "even the playing field" of education, national testing offers the feedback tools to accomplish this. With data gained by through testing results, educators and system evaluators can study what has been learned where, by what, and how, and then come up with decisions to help all schools improve so that every student achieves. For example, if one school exhibits tremendous strength in math, the strategies and techniques used can be listed and analyzed, categorized into best practices and shared with other schools through the district. The same is true with reading and science.

Having worked in professional development for a number of years I was privy to some interesting district data. As I studied children over a span of time, usually three to five years, I could often recognize where the child had gone to school and who their teacher or teachers most likely had been. Granted we are a small small district with three elementaries, a middle school, a junior high and one high school and so my study was limited, however the results were amazing. Because of my role I visited many classrooms observing students and teachers in action. One particularly strong fifth grade science teacher comes to mind to better explain what I learned. Every science lesson in her classroom contained essential components: true, scientific vocabulary, clear explanations, adequate time for questions and exploration, and class interaction that included hypotheses and predictions culminating in hands-on experiments. To say the least, their science education was dedicated and thorough.

In March these students participated in statewide Criterion Referenced Tests. Obtaining an alphabetical list of students with their science scores, sort of a "blind" study, I could scan the list and then accurately identify who had been a student in Mrs.. B's room by the high test score in science. Her scores were high overall but my focus was science. Yes, there were other students in other classes with great scores similar to Mrs. B's, but an especially important feature included that no student in her classroom had a low score. All were passing or exemplary.

I might have concluded that this was just a handsome coincidence until I reviewed sixth grade scores. Selecting the top ten, guess what? All had been in Mrs. B's class the previous year. In seventh grade Mrs. B's students were eight of the top ten and in eighth grade seven. A definite pattern emerging that students who had had science with the specific and pure instruction of Mrs. B did well not only in her classroom but their success continued. The "drop-off" in top ten in later grades can be credited to new students moving in and some of the students of Mrs. B having less capable teachers in later grades. The talents described can be easily shared and then incorporated into other classes to increase opportunities for every child.

And that is why I deem state and national testing vital and important. The data provides us with excellent information that could and should be used to determine future training and instruction. Nothing in Mrs. B's classroom was radical or not replicable. Everything was straight forward, following state expectations for learning, clear, and easily transferable. Any teacher could visit with, observer students in action, or ask questions and then utilize feedback in his or her classroom. A strange factor about teaching, however, is that sometimes teachers jealously guard their talents (not true of Mrs B) and more likely, teachers struggle to identify and admit shortcomings and so a less than thorough education with less adequate techniques continues.

So while many complain about state and national testing, the data generated from these has the power to transform teaching. All that is needed is an evaluator – much of which computers can complete – to identify strengths and areas of concern of students, link them to teachers and their mode of operation, study and compare student learning over time, and then determine the best form of Professional development for the school and district. Often the expert is right there on hand so no enormous fees are required or intensive time and money spent on travel. Instead school leaders can glean the best and the finest – local, talented educators.

Source by Gini Cunningham

Types of Software Testing – Why Is Testing Important?

Usually, we don’t think about how much effort developers should put into providing users with a high-quality product. Programmers are not the only individuals who participate in the software development. For correct functioning, the program must be tested. And this job falls on the shoulders of QA engineers. What methods do they use for good, proper, basic testing? Let’s consider this issue!

Common software testing types

If you order a new website or mobile app from a software development company, for example, testing services are included in the development process by default. But how does it occur? As a rule, the first QA engineers perform a Requirement analysis. It allows testers to understand what the app should do and how to avoid bugs.

Then QA engineers start applying various types of testing to specific software. These types include the following:

Acceptance testing. Testers verify whether software meets all acceptance criteria. Then it is up to the customer to make a decision whether the software will be sent for revision or will be accepted.

Smoke testing. It is similar to acceptance testing. At this stage, QA engineers make a short cycle of tests to check how the new product performs its functions, how it works, and how it is launched.

Regression testing. It is applicable if during the development process some changes in source code are made. But if we need specific functionality to work properly, the operation may not work after certain changes. So regression testing allows specialists to find out whether required functionality works properly and as well as it used to.

Sanity testing. It is a focused testing oriented for confirmation that one function or another is working according to requirements stated in the specification. It is a subset of regression testing.

UI testing. The tester verifies whether the software meets requirements of graphic user interface, and whether it is made in a single style. It implies testing with different screen resolutions, compatibility with various Internet browsers, as well as the testing of localized versions – translation accuracy and the name length of interface elements.

Permission testing. That is where QA engineers should check how the permission system is functioning in the software that’s being tested. For example, you are an ordinary user, and it would have been very strange if you had access to the administrator’s access rights, wouldn’t it? And testers want to make sure that everything is working properly.

Usability testing. QA engineers must understand how to make the final product user-friendly. So they put themselves in the shoes of common users – they need to test the software’s usability, and find out if it is easy-to-use or not.

Advanced testing types – why are they necessary?

In most cases, all testing types considered above can help specialists to make good testing. But if your product is non-standard, the necessity in advanced testing may arise. Advanced testing includes the following:

Sprint 0 activity. It means that QA specialists start testing even before the software is finished. It makes it possible to avoid bugs at an early stage.

Automated Functional and Regression testing. Automation makes it possible to get quick results and to fix all bugs as soon as possible. Also, this testing type allows you to launch the test with various parameters: a few versions of input and expected data.

Compatibility testing. It is important to understand how the product is compatible with system elements and other apps.

Interrupt testing. Everything is simple here – an understanding of how the product will work after an unexpected interruption.

Load testing. What will happen to your app if too many users start using it simultaneously? That is what testers must find out and then create the maximal load for the software.

Security testing. Testing for protection from possible web attacks.


We can see that the testing process is not easier than the development. There are many important issues to be considered and a serious development company should pay attention to them. If you don’t want to lose your users, you shouldn’t skip on quality assurance. Apart from basic testing, advanced testing can also be conducted for a really good final product.

Source by Nataliia Kharchenko

New Age

New Age philosophy may be the vehicle to move people from the dark ages to the next step, but it to does not go far enough – it’s just another stepping stone that is moving very slowly and is destined to box itself in.

There were centuries of life on the planet before religion came along where man fought to get a foothold on dry land and survive the elements. As he became more comfortable with his life out of the ocean, he began to organize his random thoughts into cohesive sentences so that others may understand what he was thinking. Communication between tribe members brought about curiosity about whom he was and why he was here. Because he was getting no answers from the sky or from the ocean, he began to make things up and imagined all kinds of things. Some of the tribes more creative members found that they could get special treatment for telling their stories and so the seeds of organized religion were created.

For centuries humanity’s imagination has been locked inside religious boxes. Centuries of religious dogma have not brought about the promise of equality, peace and brotherly love that was promised. Laws based on religious moral laws have not kept us from war between countries, special interest groups, or family and neighbours. It has not brought equality to the sexes or sharing of our natural resources. The system has failed us, yet it was inevitable and a natural step in the evolution of primitive cultures.

New Age is the present door that offers alternatives to religious faith. Its major theme is oneness as apposed to the duality taught by many religions. The other major difference is that it does not seek to change the world, but to allow the thoughts of the individual to evolve. Because New Age believes that we are all connected as one mind, any thought that one has, will be communicated to the whole and eventually accepted as the new truth. Therefore it does not need to be organized or have institutions. New Age philosophy teaches that it is the natural tendency for all things to evolve to a higher level of awareness or experience. Because New Age philosophy is not centralized or boxed, it encourages evolution outside of its own philosophy. This insures its survival in the process of humanities evolution, because it is not an end unto itself. The seeds have been spread and allowed to germinate sporadically around the world.

As a New Age writer and one who has helped to spread the philosophy, I can see the end of it unless it is willing to take the next step itself. Not unlike religion, New Age is getting quite comfortable with itself and is enjoying a surge in popularity and recognition. It is in danger of becoming another money making venture as has religion.

The motive behind writing and teaching New Age must be its basic philosophy of expanding humanities awareness, not how much you can make from it. There is nothing inherently right or wrong about making a living teaching New Age philosophy or religion. And I support these people as I don’t believe a life lived in poverty or want is a good example of how well a system is working.

However, it must be the goal of the writers and teachers to move their readers and students past its philosophy for the benefit of all. In other words if I teach you my truth, you will develop a new truth and teach me yours. And so this leap-frogging will keep moving us to the next step of greater awareness and evolution. The very meaning of life is “movement” and without it there is no life. And therefore there is only limited life in a closed system; a box is a closed system. So any philosophy that teaches one to stay in the box is doomed and so is the believer.

New Age has moved God/Creator closer to home. It talks about “the god within,” “oneness with God,” “one mind,” but all these terms are dualistic in nature. There is the Creator/God and you joined together; which means that you and God are different entities with divided power.

You will never be fully able to manifest what you desire until you know yourself as the creator. In other words you cannot be God until you know and proclaim yourself as God. The truth is for example, that I am God manifesting in the physical body known as Roy. In order to facilitate fully the law of attraction and move myself to the next step of enlightenment; I will have to know myself as the law, as God. This is where New Age is lacking. It is embracing the age of this realization but cannot go forward because it and the rest of the world is not ready to accept that responsibility. And there is still money to be made in religion and writing New Age books, (Not that there is anything wrong with that).

I am not saying anything different than what religion has been saying for centuries. There is a path back to the Creator. What I am saying is that You/God can continue in the physical life knowing who and what you really are. I am saying that you and your creator have never been separated, but have lived with the illusion that you are. In knowing this you can take control of your own personal power to create the life that you want to experience and life will be much easier. Understanding the bigger picture will bring great satisfaction knowing that it is you who creates the circumstances of your life and that you have the power to change it at any time.

History has shown that the first step is usually the hardest and the slowest. New Age will be a little faster, and the next step will be a quantum leap into something else. Our technology best demonstrates this point, if you consider where we were 150 years ago.

Most people will experience the end of the world, because they believe that it will happen. For the few that have moved past that belief, there will be an easy transformation from one state of existence to another as matter cannot be created nor destroyed. The universe is changing shape but it will never be lost.

All beliefs are relevant, they are all appropriate as the creator moves from one to the other to experience what the mind can only conceive. As the creator you can make yourself aware of this movement by letting go of your old concepts and open the doors to other possibilities. By understanding that you are not just the body, but the energy that animates it. No thought should be the end, but a new beginning.

Source by Roy Klienwachter

A New Science of Mind and Society?

A New Science of Mind and Society-Part One

The reader will not here meet with any of those bold flights which seem to characterize the works of the present age … these generally arise from the mind's collecting all its powers to view only one side of the subject, while it leaves the other unobserved .

Charles De Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748)


This article proposes a restructuring of science in a manner that would enhance human health, happiness, and evolution toward a more intelligently adaptive and creative global society. A method of reuniting scientific and spiritual values ​​is described, and a general plan is proposed for making the transition to a syntropic science that would overturn the crises anticipated to occur in the 21st century as a result of both technological evolution and the impact of human civilization On the Earth's biosphere.

In the December 2011 Scientific American, "Ten World Changing Ideas" were featured. The tenth idea was described and discussed by David Weinberger in an article entitled "The Machine That Would Predict the Future." Weinberger is a Senior Research Scientist at the Harvard Berkman Center and a Co-Director of the Harvard Library Lab. He is also the author of Too Big to Know (2012).

"The Machine" in question is actually a computing system being developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich under the leadership of Dirk Helbing. Several universities and research institutions around the world support the project, and it was once considered the top choice to receive a € 1 billion research grant from the European Union. Weinberger's article, however, was subtly critical and may have influenced the EU's ultimate decision to give the award instead to two other projects, one of them being the Human Brain Project (EU) which is designed to reverse engineer the entire human brain. Henry Markham leads this project in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Scientific American's own brief synopsis of the Weinberger article reads as follows:

  1. "Researchers plan to build a computing system that would model the entire world to predict the future.
  2. The project would be powered by the intense data streams now available to researchers.
  3. Yet models are not perfect: many researchers think they will never be able to capture the world's complexities.
  4. A better knowledge machine may arise out of Web-like principles such as interconnection and argument. "

Weinberger's article is an excellent discussion of the problems associated with understanding and modeling large complex systems, and I am using it here as starting point from which to present a proposal for a New Science.

Weinberger asserts, correctly I believe, that we do not have (a) a coherent theory of social behavior upon which to build a coherent social science. I will suggest one. He refers to (b) an exponential rise in difficulties when trying to understand all the layers in a complex system. I will suggest a basis for triage. He mentions (c) natural limits to models of complexity imposed by "two hallmarks of unpredictability: black swans and chaos theory." I offer an approach to working with unpredictability. He describes (d) a tension between "a central organization taking charge" and "'a data commons' that anyone can make use of." This is a well-known and resolvable system problem. Weinberger poses issues with regard to (e) a definition of knowledge. I have an opinion here, too. Lastly, he points to (f) a version of the uncertainty principle in social models that alter the behavior of the system as it's being modeled. I love the challenge.

Why a New Science?

Science can be an expensive activity, and scientists are sometimes accused of wasting money on trivial pursuits. There are better ways to organize our quest for knowledge.

Science has long been put into service to defend particular political entities and their sometimes aggressive campaigns. It may be time to evolve past that.

When not put to use in support of religious organizations and movements, science is a fundamentally secular activity that is agnostic with regard to religious beliefs. Science, we should remember, was once a captivating new method of exploring and understanding the nature of reality.

As such, it was considered with great auspicious by religious authorities. Following the trials of Galileo and Bruno, the French philosopher, René Descartes, rescued both science and religion by establishing the theoretical basis for a territorial divide: the Church would rule over the domain of the soul. Science would be free to explore the body, and by extension, the material Universe. It would surrender Universal Purpose, leaving that to the gods.

This artificial distinction worked for a long time, but like many compromises that satisfy temporal interests, it led eventually to some unhealthy situations. Most organized, monotheistic religions became increasingly dependent on a totalizing revealed truth and faith. The strength of faith-based religions lies absolutely in their unifying Absolute Value, ie, God , an unchangeable value that is held to be more important than life itself and yet, it promises eternal life. If you doubt this, how would you explain the behavior of the Mayor of Greencastle, Indiana, in 1972, when he stormed out of a Sunday school class saying, "I would rather see my son die than have him treated by a doctor who is A Communist. " Was this not Abraham providing to us that one's belief in God is more important than life itself?

Science, on the other hand, deprives us of dedication to such a value. It seems to be saying to us that truth is the ultimate value, yet it denies saying so, asserting that human values ​​are outside the purview of science, and the truth is never fully known. To the extent that human values ​​are studied by science, it is done from a position of neutrality.

In convergence, science became dominated by a variety of paradigms of analytic reductionism, narrowly-focused experimentation, null hypotheses; Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies; A Big Bang leading to Universal Entropy, classical Newtonian theory, Einsteinian Relativity, quantum mechanics, scientific modeling (always incomplete), and the concept of evolution by natural selection which led at times to popular corrections on "selfish genes," "social Darwinism, "And eugenics. In the modern, secular world, we are bereft of the soothing attachment to an Absolute Value that includes the oxymoronic promise of "life after death," a charismatic promise that survives by stilling the rational mind.

Yet in the faith-based societies, for example in the Republic of Maldives, everything looks clear, and the goal seems worthy of total dedication. In secular societies, it looks everything is tinged with skepticism, doubt, instability, and the potential for fragmentation. Secular societies, in particular, tend towards changing polarities of central vs. Peripheral control, inequalities of wealth, and nationalism vs. Either irredentism or globalism. Therein lies both the strength and the weakness of a civilization based on democratic freedoms, an openness to all ideas on the one hand, and on the other, to its corresponding struggles, especially the various emulations of authoritarianism and libertarianism springing from within the undecided , The quasi-democratic context.

The ideology of science, still the best method for ascertaining truth within a limited domain, plays no small role in creating the alleged clash of civilizations that now distracts humanity from its core values ​​relating to and derived from survival.

The need for a re-orientation of science, political economy, and secular education is clear and urgent.

We can retain the best in science, philosophy, and faith-based spirituality by showing how they converge in a manner analogous to the concept, not surprisingly, of convergent evolution. They converge, because their underlying logic takes them step-by-step, via natural selection, towards a more adaptively and creatively form of intelligent organization.

Fundamental to this convergence is the concept of the Absolute Value. There has always been an unspoken Absolute Value, we will appeal, that is intrinsic to both science and secular philosophy. It is this: The survival of human life and its ongoing evolution towards greater levels of adaptive and creative intelligence-made necessary by a constantly changing Universe-is an Absolute Value to humans-and to all living and lifelike systems.

OK, we already know this. We know we want to live, to breathe, feel, be healthy and happy. It's so simple, and it's not news to say we want to survive. Yet we are not as-individuals, large groups, or as a species-acting as though we were fully conscious of the fact that being alive, loving and being loved, experiencing well-being, and enjoying happiness is what is most important to us . We have become distracted from our central purpose, our primary organizing principle.

Every complex, lifelike system is organized around an Absolute Value, a Universal Goal: X is Absolute if no-X equals no other values. Thus if X equals Life, the absence of X means no-Life, and if there is no Life there are no values ​​held by Life. Likewise, if there are no human lives, there are no human values. The same logic applies to faith in God. If there is no God, there are no God-based values. If there is no God but a belief in God there will be beliefs and values ​​attributed to a God that does not exist.

We can prove that human lives exist, but there is no proof that God exists except claimed proofs from human assertions that have not stood the test of logic. The point here, however, is that the evidence from the evolution of the concept of God and that from the evolution of Life itself is that both are evolving towards an ideal that is a fundamental and natural organizing principle in all intelligent, complex, and adaptive Information-processing systems.

The faith-based Ideal and the secular Ideal are essentially identical but for one major difference: the faith-based, "revealed" Ideal is believed to exist in a timeless spiritual realm where the nominal Ideal is projected into a future material real that can be Approached but never fully realized. The difference between a spiritual realm and a never realized material realm? They are both an Ideal. The difference lies in the method of reaching for the Ideal.

Neither the faith-based nor the secular community should be criticized for their choice. The secular Ideal is just an extension of the spiritual ideal. The spiritual Ideal came first-when life was simpler and the material extensions of human abilities were limited. The least expensive way to bring people into a community with a better chance of survival was to spread a belief system. Nothing but shared faith was needed to pursue its development and protect it.

Now we have many material extensions of our knowledge and abilities that can make us feel invulnerable behind the curtains that we draw between us. Only relatively recently, and perhaps too late, have we discovered the forces that make us all equally vulnerable and subject to dissolution by the material means we thought would save ourselves from each other.

But we're not sure that it's too late, and we can not take the chance of giving up. The important thing now is to recognize that having an Absolute Value as a conscious goal changes everything. It is an evolutionary necessity that can potentially bring enough of us together in time to save all of us.

Adherents to both the spiritual and secular ideals should be commended for their choice, so long as their attachment to their values ​​promotes an ongoing evolution towards ever greater adaptive and creative intelligence. That has been the obvious choice, up to now, of the creator God, the reincarnation-based religions and philosophies, and the secular approach to living longer in state of well-being and happiness.

There are such minor differences as cancer cures, organ transplants, treatments that stop epidemics, and longevity extended to a much greater degree than existed before the rise to global acceptance of scientifically-based preventative and curative medicine, but for the faithful ones are also the Ways of God. And just as God's existence can not be proved, so too we can not prove God's inequality.

Belief in God remains a powerful force in human affairs, and many human problems can not be resolved without the support and cooperation of both faith-based and secular communities. The New Science, if it is to be based on the consciously promoted goal of survival and the healthy evolution of life, must promote respect and cooperation between the two types of community by pointing out that, extremely, our two types of Absolute Value are structured As nearly identical Ideals.

Even the methods of secular and faith-based decision-making on a daily basis are converging over time with both methods being incrementally employed and reinforcing one another. From a religious perspective, it can be argued that if a creator God created life and us in particular then we bought to respect God's decisions-insofar as they are actually "known" and understood.

The Value of a Consciously Selected Secular Absolute

What might be the benefit to humans of having a secular [Absolute] Value? For one thing, it can be a unifying force in relation to conflicting streams of history and culture. An Absolute Value provides a unifying compass in Life, something that gives direction and the perception of a deep meaning to individuals, societies, cultures, and civilizations.

The West and its Enlightenment values ​​are currently seen from the perspective of some cultures as void of any sense of an ultimate purpose in Life. This is threatening to those civilizations that base themselves on service to an all-defining Absolute Value.

The West has also been criticized, not without some justification, for veering toward a mindless consumerism and an existential ennui that derives from it's having an anti-teleological status in relation to human and spiritual values.

This materialist focus is seen as destroying the Earth's natural environment for future generations as well as leading to an aggressive development that in the past heartlessly disrupted the lives and cultures of more traditional peoples. The balance among peoples, nature, and meaningfulness is so seen as seriously disturbed even as the wonders of science and technology amaze and seduce the human personality, drawing us out of our environment of natural selection into a strange new world that seems to have lost its Bearings. We are seen within our own technological communities as an evolution towards a " singularity " beyond which we will neither understand the decisions of cyborgs nor those of AI machines nor the relevance of any human future. Is this the end result of Enlightenment thinking?

We do not think it is. So let us very briefly outline the history and future of the human race as we envision it from the syntropic perspective. The evidence indicates that we came into being in Africa, migrated in waves out into the rest of the world, evolved different races and cultures in reliably isolated ecosystems, flourished and expanded. The human family is now growing back together. However, at the present stage we are still engaged in tribal-like divisions, mutual misunderstandings, and violent conflicts that debilitate and actually make us an endangered species despite the obvious successes and present vitality of modern human societies. The conditions that now threaten all of us require that we begin to think in new ways, but we've been slow to let go of the old ways.

Thus two of the reasons for proposing a New Science are (1) to further the establishment of peaceful connections among the peoples of the world, and (2) re-establish an ongoing balance between our whole species and the natural environment that sustains us.

Thirdly, we are too slowly waking up to the issue of a human trend toward extinction through an unintended self-destruction by those very means that are lifting us further up and away from our early Garden of Eden, an environment that has been characterized as paradisical But may have actually been filled with lives that were poor, nasty, brutal, and short.

A fourth justification for establishing a New Science is that numerous studies have shown that humans are healthy and happier when we have a sense of purpose, when our lives are meaningful in relation to something larger than ourselves, when we share values ​​with others, and when We stimulate, challenge, and are ever rewarded by success at what we do.

Fifth, a branch of science devoted primarily to military defense and indemnity in the modern world is more than just wasteful. It is necessary as long as we are divided into sovereign nation-states, but it is based on a logic whose end result is genocide or self-extinction-the ultimate bad ideas.

Sixth, the technology that now exists, or that will very soon exist, enables a new science of complex systems.

Simultaneously, the Internet, together with increasing inequalities, racism, and ethnocentrism, is producing a regressive, retribalization of the "forgotten people" that need jobs and a sense of purpose. Currently we are fostering isolated, sometimes vastly overcrowded communities based on values ​​and misrepresentations of facts that keep Special interests happy-while the overall trend is antithetical to authentic democracy.

We need new methods for re-integration of isolated belief systems within carefully authenticated democratic decision-making processes that the vast majority of peoples can believe in and support. New ideas and technologies can not only help with that, they can transform the game, but the ultimate solution-for machines as well as for people-is faith in a Universal Value that encourages an ever greater adaptive and creative intelligence.

End of Part One.

Source by Tsering Wangchuk

The Phillips Curve's Debate – White Hat or Black Hat from Two Perspectives

In introduction, I will be expounding on 'The Phillips Curve's Debate:' White Hat or Black Hat 'from two perspectives through the paper. First, I will discuss the 'Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy' by Samuelson and Solow. Second, I will discuss the first perspective: 'The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy' by Romer and Romer. Then, I will discuss the second perspective: 'Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy' by Sargent. Finally, I will attempt to answer the question – 'Which Perspective Reflects "The Phillips Curve" More Accurately? "

(AWH Phillips published a study in 1958, which introduced a curve that represents the relationship between the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate.) The curve was named after Phillips [hence, The Phillips Curve] although several people had made similar observations before him. The Phillips Curve represented a milestone in the development of macroeconomics. You may see more detailed information on 'The Phillips Curve' by going to the following website.)

Paul A. Samuelson and Robert M. Solow, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote 'Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflution Policy' in 1960. Samuelson and Solow (liberals [not 'an offensive word' in my book as in the 'FoxBusinessNews's book [As pointed out to me by Dr. H. Gram and the rereading of their article and biographies) wanted to 'shed light' on the inflation question. They believe the first postwar rise in prices was primarily attributable to the pull of demand that asserted from wartime accumulations of liquid assets and deferred needs as opposed to, at the time of the 1946-48 rise in American prices, the successful rounds of wage increases Resulting from collective bargaining. Samuelson and Solow used the Korean War run-up of prices after mid-1950 to emphasize their demand-pull theory. However, they continued, "But just by the time that cost-push was becoming discredited as a theory of inflation, we ran into the rather puzzling phenomenon of the 1955-58 upward creep of prices, which seemed to take place in the part of The period continuous growing overcapacity, slack labor markets, slow real growth, and no obvious great buoyancy in over-all demand. " (Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflamation Policy by Samuelson and Solow.) The precedent ending was where they applied 'The Phillips Curve' which led to their notoriety (hence, the black hat) in most economic circles (even in my textbooks for Advanced Macroeconomics , Price Theory and Investment Analysis of the duo were portrayed in a negative light).

Albeit, Samuelson and Solow's article was about the great debate over the possible causations involved in inflation: demand-pull vs. Cost-push; Wage vs. More general Lerner "seller's inflation"; And the new Charles Schultze theory of "demand-shift" inflation. In their defense, they cited, "We propose to give a brief survey of the issues. Rather than pronounce on the terribly difficult question as to which which is the best model to use in explaining the past past and predicting the likely future, we shall Try to emphasize the types of evidence, which can help decide between the conflicting theories. And we shall be concerned with some policy implications that arise from the different analytical hypothesis. " (Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy by Samuelson and Solow.)

In the conclusion of their article, Samuelson and Solow saved a few disclaimers (they were aware of future criticism) as it pertains to their article. The disclaimers, also, deal with the short-run and long run effects of using the Phillips Curve application from their perspective. Here is a quote of the final disclaimer: "We have not entered entered upon the important question of what feasible institutional reforms may be introduced to lessen the degree of disharmony between full employment and price stability. These could of course involve such wide-ranging issues As direct price and wage controls, antiunion and antitrust legislation, and a host of other measures hopefully designed to move the American Phillips' curves downwards to the left. " (Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy by Samuelson and Solow.)

The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Christina D. Romer (Professor, University of California at Berkeley) and David H. Romer (Professor, University of California at Berkeley) can be summed up in the words of Dr. Sargent: "The Berkeley story is that the monetary policy authorities knew an approximately correct model of the macroeconomy in the 1950s, forgot it in the late 1960s and early 1970s, made bad policy as a result, then relearned the correct model in the 1980s and Thereupon improved policy. " (Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Sargent.)

I agree with Dr. Sargent's assertion that the Romers put changing ideas about the exploitableness of the Phillips Curve front and center in their relative paper. In addition, I coincided with Dr. Sargent that they assign Samuelson and Solow's 1960 paper an important role in creating the intellectual foundations for the policy mistakes that led to America's biggest peacetime inflation: "'In the early 1960s, Policymakers adopted the Samuelson-Solow (1960) view that held that very Low unemployment was an attainable long-run goal and suggested that there was a permanent tradeoff between inflation and unemployment (page 2). '"(Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Sargent.)

The Romers used the following excerpt in their defense:

"Mr. Fischer: I leave David and Christina Romer to answer what Samuelson really meant. David, however, are you going to divide it? Why do not you come back fairly quickly on what Tom said and then we'll turn to The audience?

Mr. Romer: Let me just provide three responses. First of all, thank you very much for the kind words and insights. Second, on Samuelson and Solow, here said we give them a dramatic role. If you read our paper, we do not give them a dramatic move. We mention them in the introduction. We do not claim to have studied that part of the intellectual history and the link between what Samuelson and Solow did and subsequent policy carefully enough to have a view on when their role was dramatic or not. Third, and more importantly, Tom cave a long list of ideas that do not get a big role in our paper. It is an interesting list. It has a lot of things that certainly played some role, and so I want to say thanks for the suggestions, and that there is certainly something there. But I do not want to go too far. We left those things out of our story because we thought, in looking at the big picture of policy and, indeed, at lots of the medium-sized twists and turns, that those things are not central. To give one example: We do not think, and we are in company with a lot of people, that what happened in the 1960s and 1970s was that people fell into a Kydland and Prescott equilibrium where you know exactly what is going on, but Because you can not precommit, the optimal policy for you to follow is one that involves high inflation. So, that is one idea that we would say to a first approximation just was not important. Some of the others clearly did have some role, but we feel that they are not the essence of the matter.

Ms. Romer: As the historian on the team, I wanted to take a second and talk a little bit about research methodology and about the narrative approach. Here I'll actually invoke Stan Fischer, who had a much more important role than he will ever know in our views. In our introductory graduate macro class, he said, .How do we know money matters? It was not a VAR or some other complicated regression. It was Friedman and Schwartz. I think that this view has definitely affected our research strategy. Often narrative evidence is, in some ways, the most powerful. If you think about the question that we are asking what were the beliefs of policymakers there are not a lot of data one can use. We tried to get somewhere with the Fed forecasts. But this is inherently a question of what people were thinking. To answer that, you need to read the narrative sources. I also want to take exception to the idea that the narrative approach is literary. I prefer to think of it as science in a different form. It is not getting a few fun anecdotes that make for better reading. It is, in fact, taking serious sources, reading them systematically, carefully, confronting them with a hypothesis. If it is done well, it is certainly a legitimate technique. In terms of how subject it is, all of us who have done empirical work know that there are a multitude of decisions and judgment calls that one makes any time one does research. That is true of both narrative research and empirical work. The last thing I'd say concerns verifiability. How is any work ever tested or verified? It's by someone else trying to replicate it. It is true of empirical work: another researcher gets the data and tries it again. It is true of narrative work: someone else looks at the same sources, or at new sources, and sees wherever they reach a similar conclusion. "(General Discussion: The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policyaired by Dr. Stanley Fischer [ Professor, University of California at Berkeley]]

The Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Dr. By Thomas J. Sargent, Professor, Stanford University and Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, is basically a critique of the Romers' article (as pointed out above). Interestingly, Dr. Sargent's scathing critique was made more credible and fair since as a Senior Fellow of the conservative Hoover Institution and as published by his various published papers and biography, came to the defense of restructured liberals Samuelson and Solow. (Dr. H. Gram first pointed out the irony to me.)

Dr. Sargent, methodically and gingerly avoided 'The Berkley Story' by using different angles with Germanic organizational skills and Teutonic thoroughness. (I have given a few examples in the above paragraph).

Therefore, which perspective (The Romers 'perspective or Sargent's perspective reflects' The Phillips Curve '[as applied by Samuelson and Solow] more accurately? The answer can be found in Sargent's quote: "The Romers' reading of the story of post-WWII Fed behavior in terms of knowing, forgetting, and relearning is appealing and even comforting because, in the end, the Fed has gotten things straight, raising the prospects for a future characterized by excellent US monetary policy. This rosy outlook. As in any good story, the Romers have simplified things to make their point. They are optimistic that the Fed has converged on a correct specification of the dynamics of the system they control. They ignore the role that fixed exchange rates probably Played in disciplining Fed policy in the 1950s and 1960s. They downplay the possibility that the late 1960s and 1970s were times of especially large shocks, and that in the last two decades shocks have been Drawn from distributions that make the Fed's job easier. But let's hope that the Romers are correct and that the Fed has learned the most important lessons to be learned. "(Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Sargent.)

In my opinion, Samuelson and Solow reflected in their article the Romers' view. However, they (as Chairman Alan Greenspan and any other savvy politician does in their speeches, today) peppered their article with nuances, subtleties and disclaimers (see the introduction and conclusion of their article) to defend them against the historical critics who would test them Applications in future situations. Dr. Sargent used the nuances, subtleties and disclaimers to make his scathing point against the Romers. For example, "While the Romers' summary judgment about the ill effects of Samuelson and Solow's paper might be just, a subtler reading of Samuelson and Solow's paper, and its consequent influence and ramifications, are also possible." (Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy by Sargent.)

In conclusion, I expounded on 'The Phillips Curve's Debate:' White Hat or Black Hat 'from two perspectives through the paper. First, I discussed the 'Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy' by Samuelson and Solow. Second, I discussed the first perspective: 'The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy' by Romer and Romer. Then, I discussed the second perspective: 'Commentary – The Evolution of Economic Understanding and Postwar Stabilization Policy' by Sargent. Finally, I attempted to answer the question – 'Which Perspective Reflects "The Phillips Curve" More Accurately? "

Source by Karl Mitchell

Low Price and High Efficiency

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There are three famous models – the Evolution series, Preferred series and the Legacy series. The Evolution line gives the very best efficiency with as much as an 18 rating for the SEER and a 9.0 HSPF rating. The latest technology utilizes the Puron refrigerant and so it is rated with an energy star. There are also the 2-stage scroll compressor and the 2-stage reciprocating compressor. It also boasts of the Aero Quiet System II which has a decibel level of 72. The second line is the Preferred series. The ratings speak for the maximum functionality with 15 as the SEER rating, 8.5 as the HSPF and 11.54 in the EER rating. They also have the scroll compressor and the Aero Quiet System II technologies. The Preferred Compact model 538B is especially crafted for small spaced homes. Despite the small size, it has high performance ratings. The SEER is 15.5, the HSPF is 9.0 and the EER is 12.5. The system also works very quietly for as low as 66 decibels. The last famous line is the Legacy series. They use the Puron refrigerant, scroll compressor and a system the works quietly for 76 decibels. The ratings are also impressive: 15 for SEER, 8.5 for HSPF and 11.5 for EER. All these models have 10 year warranty on the machine and 5 year warranty on the parts.

The numbers strictly stand for the superior quality in terms of providing heat and cold whatever the environmental climate calls for. Despite the above average performance, they are noticeably cheap, considering the low operational costs expected in the future. There are a lot of service shops and dealers around the country and the world to ensure accessibility by all consumers. Indeed, Bryant pieces are a perfect mix of low heat pump prices and high performance.

Source by Jordan Laurent

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