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Biocides In Textile

Any unwanted modification in the properties of a material brought about by the essential actions of organisms is called Bio-deterioration. Present article is concerned with the degeneration of textile materials produced by microorganisms like fungi and bacteria, and the solutions to avert or reduce their effects.

Not all failures of materials by microorganisms are unwanted. When we throw away any objects not required any more, we wait for “Nature” to clear away what has then become waste. Such deterioration is a vital course of action for the protection of the world in which we live, and it is a process of recycling many of the vital components held by these materials. However, it can be a critical problem to both manufacturers and users when it is an undesirable process, when textiles are influenced by rot or mildew.

Under proper environment microorganisms, which dwell in soil, water, and air can grow and flourish on textile materials. These organisms encompass species of microfungi, bacteria, actinomycetes (filamentous bacteria), and algae. Textiles manufactured from natural fibres are normally more vulnerable to biodeterioration than are the synthetic man-made fibres. Microbial expansion can also be advanced by products like starch, protein derivatives, fats, and oils used in the finishing of textiles. Micro-organisms may attack the whole substrate, i.e. the textile fibres, or they may attack only one constituent of the substrate, such as plasticizers enclosed therein, or grow on dirt that has built up on the surface of a product.

However, even minor surface tumour can make a fabric look ugly by the emergence of undesirable pigmentation. Heavy infestation, which gives rise to decaying and failure of the fibres and consequent physical variations such as a loss of firmness or flexibility, may produce the fabric that fail to serve. The material is attacked chemically by the action of extra-cellular enzymes produced by the microorganism for the objective of acquiring food. However, microbial activity can be reduced by saving the dryness of vulnerable materials because surface expansion will only take place when the relative humidity is high. Therefore, some kind of chemical shield is generally needed with textiles expected to be used in hostile conditions under which they stay wet or damp for long time.

Natural fibres

Plant fibres like cotton, flax (linen), jute and hemp are very vulnerable to attack by cellulolytic (cellulose – digesting) fungi. Certainly, the complete degeneration of cellulose can be achieved by enzymes created by the fungi and recognized as cellulases. Diagram 1 gives details of the chemical process involved. The spores of these microfungi are there in the atmosphere and when they settle on proper substrates they can grow fast under positive conditions of temperature and humidity. The typical growth form of these “mould” fungi is recognised as mildew, a outward growth, which may discolour and spoil the fabric with stain, as many microfungi are able to produce pigments. The best safeguard against mildew is to ensure that the fabrics are dry when put in storage and that they do not turn out to be wet in storeroom. Fabrics which are to be used outdoors for awnings, beach umbrellas, military uniforms, sails, tarpaulins, tents, truck and boat covers, shoes and shoe linings, are processed with a fungicidal finish to save them from mildew damage and rotting. Algal greening may also appear on fabrics, which stay damp for long time and can create particular problems in the tropics.

In proportion to plant fibres, animal fibres are less affected by mildew growth. Pure silk, if completely degummed, is less vulnerable. Wool decomposes only slowly but chemical and mechanical harm during procedure can intensify its vulnerability to biodeterioration. When stored under very unfavourable conditions wool will finally rot by the action of the proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes concealed by many microfungi and bacteria.

Man-made fibres

Man-made fibres obtained from cellulose are vulnerable to microbial degeneration. Viscose (rayon) is easily struck by mildew and bacteria; acetate and triacetate are more unaffected although discoloration can take place if the fabrics are improperly stored. Fibres produced from synthetic polymers (e.g. acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, and polypropylene fibres) are very resistant to attack by microorganisms.

The hydrophobic character of these polymers is possibly a significant aspect deciding their resistance. Also, these synthetic polymers have chemical bonds, which do not take place or are rare in nature, and perhaps therefore they have not been around long enough for microorganisms to develop the proper enzymes required to start their analysis. Although the substance of a synthetic fibre by itself will not hold up microbial development, pollutants of low molecular weight (e.g. remaining marks of the caprolactam monomer of nylon 6) and mixtures such as lubricants and spinning oils used in the finishing of textiles may give satisfactory nutrient for mild surface evolution of a microorganism. In most cases this will not influence the health of the fabric but can result into staining and discolouration, which are often not easy or impossible to eliminate.

. Plastics

Various kinds of plastic materials have surfaced as sections of textile products, for instance, to give waterproof coatings for rainwear. Plastics, which are produced mainly or entirely from polymers such as polyethylene, are generally highly resistant to microbial expansion. However, two types of plastic used significantly as coatings for textile materials, plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethanes, are vulnerable to biodeterioration. In the case of PVC, the polymer itself does not willingly supply a means of nutrients for bacteria and fungi. The vulnerability of PVC formulations to microbial attack is associated with the amount and types of plasticizers, fillers, pigments, and stabilizers, etc., inserted during processing. Many of these additives are organic compounds of comparatively low molecular weight. For instance, plasticizers (predominantly esters of organic acids, polyesters, and chlorinated hydrocarbons), which are put in to enhance the flexibility of an otherwise fragile polymer, will in most cases nourish microbial expansion and their degree of vulnerability applies a deep impact on the propensity of the textile coating to biodeterioration; such microbial exploitation of the plasticizers may cause crack of the PVC coating during use. With polyurethanes on the other hand the actual polymer is able to prop up microbial evolution because of the resemblance of some of the chemical connections in polyurethanes to those discovered in nature. Therefore, biocides are often included in both plasticized PVC and polyurethanes as a practical measure.

Use of biocides

The perfect technique of preventing microbial degeneration is to use synthetic materials, which are naturally resistant to attack. Another method is to apply antimicrobial chemicals known as “biocides” which are generally included into the finished textile product. So far no additive agent has been unearthed, which provides neither complete safety nor is without some drawback. Perfect biocides include following requirements:

. Efficient against a large range of microorganisms, especially bacteria and microfungi.

. Operative during the life of the product.

. Of low mammalian toxicity and non-toxic to humans at the concentrations used.

. Lacking colour and odour.

. Influential at low concentrations.

. Not expensive and easy to use.

. Resistant to sunlight and percolating from the fabric.

. Fabric handle and health are unaffected.

. Adaptable with water-repelling and flame-reducing agents, dyes, and other textile accessories.

. Does not intensify the fabric to destruction by light or other effects.

It would be an endless journey if somebody sets off to find the ideal biocide and the compromise choice of a proper product is not always easy. Some chemicals, for instance organo-mercury compounds, have been discarded because of their lasting and increasing toxic effects in the environment. Textile materials, which are to be used outdoors, need a constant fungicide that has anti-rain wash properties and capability to suffer breakdown by light. If the environment is tremendously damp, monitoring of algae and bacteria becomes more significant. However, many compounds, which are efficient against microfungi, are not essentially good bacteriocides and vice versa.

Regularly used biocides in the textile industry are organo-copper compounds, organo-tin compounds, and chlorinated phenols. These function by intervening in the energy-producing procedures of microbial cells. Copper naphthenate and copper-8-hydroxyquinolinate are greatly multipurpose biocides, very efficient against fungi, bacteria, and algae. They are specially used to look after textiles prone to be bare to soil and to harsh weathering conditions, e.g. cotton and flax canvases, awnings, tarpaulins, cordage, ropes, sacks, tents, military uniforms and military gears. The main drawback is that they give a yellow-green colour to processed materials. Pentachlorophenol esters, conventionally pentachlorophenyl laurate (LPCP), are resistant to percolating by rainwater and so are applied as fungicides for the rot-proofing of a large array of textiles together with cotton, flax, and jute fabrics used as covers, tarpaulins, shop blinds, tents, etc.; also carpet backings, coated fabrics, hospital materials, mattress covers, pressed felts and woollen textiles. Some biocides can provide more than one objective; thus organo-tin mixtures can work as stabilizers for plastic formulations as well as fungicides.

Use of biocides in textile fabrics for rotting and mildew-proofing is generally performed as a final finishing treatment. The fabric is soaked in either a solvent (usually white spirit) solution or, more commonly, an emulsion of the biocide; it is then pressed and dried out using a cylinder dryer, a stenter, or other appropriate tools. The fabric may be polished first but more usually and especially with heavyweight materials, the biocides are applied to loomstate material without polishing. Very often they are co-applied with water-repelling, fire-retardants, and pigments. In vinyl polymers like PVC, the biocide is generally diffused in the plasticizer, which is by and large the most biodegradable constituent. As the surface film is eliminated, new plasticizer will shift to the surface, taking with it a continuous source of biocide. However, these products finally lose their protecting merits through seasoning even though 70%-80% of the biocide continues to be chemically unaffected in the formulation. One possible cause is that under the influences of heat and ultraviolet radiation, depolymerisation of the vinyl resin and consequent cross-linkage may condense the biocide, checking its transfer to the surface where biodeterioration occurs.

Biocides are also applied to give hygienic finishes for fabrics that will be used in health-care goods. These finishes are categorised as either renewable or long-lasting, although long-lasting finishes are detached gradually during laundering. Renewable finishes can be substituted during laundering, for instance quaternary

ammonium compounds used to resist napkin rash. Some safeguard against the microfungi responsible for athlete’s foot is also asserted for hygienic finishes that are applied to socks and linings for footwear.


Measuring the scope of biodeterioration of textile materials is not easy but it must be estimated in terms of millions of pounds sterling annually in the UK alone. Breakdown of materials can often be a complicated event resulting from a mixture of chemical, physical, and microbiological reasons. The problem is most critical with fabrics used outdoors but other products such as floor coverings, rug backings, shower curtains, vinyl baby pants, and mattresses may also need an antimicrobial finish to check fungal and bacterial surface expansion. If possible, materials naturally resistant to microbial attack should be chosen rather than materials, which need protection. Thus, synthetics, which resist mildew, contend positively with cotton in manufacturing sails for boats or shower curtains. Advance research is needed into techniques of producing both natural and synthetic materials more resistant to biodeterioration by chemical alteration of their make-up, especially because uncertainties have now been given rise about the toxicity and environmental constancy of some of the so far well recognized biocides. It is also envisioned that enhanced biocides will surface on the market to meet new set of laws introduced by governments worried about the environmental impact of current compounds.

Source by Gaurav Doshi

Morphea Scleroderma – Morphea Symptoms, Prognosis & Treatment

Important Facts about Morphea Scleroderma

Morphea Scleroderma is a medical condition that unlike systemic scleroderma usually only affects the skin in localized areas of the body. The condition normally begins with patches of skin becoming yellowish, somewhat dry and rigid until they eventually harden completely.

The hard skin spots or legions commonly appear as circles and have a yellow color with a purple or deep red center. These manifestations are due to excessive deposits of collagen in the layers of the skin tissue. Morphea does not normally affect any other organs of the body apart from the epidermis which makes the condition far less severe than symptoms of systemic scleroderma.

Common Morphea Symptoms

Generally, any area of the skin can be affected by Morphea, but usually most sufferers experience the formation of hard skin patches on the abdomen or upper body. In the majority of cases and more precisely more than half the cases in which the condition appears Morphea Scleroderma affects the upper layer of the skin only.

Rare Morphea Symptoms

Still, in some cases (rare), the condition may also affect the muscles, tendons and even the joints of a person afflicted with the condition. Generally,the former Morphea Scleroderma that affects the skin only is the most widely spread and even if you notice the symptoms you should not automatically think of the worst case scenario.

Will Morphea Scleroderma Clear Up By Itself?

Morphea Scleroderma skin legions are often described as a plaque and in many cases will go away on their own within tree to five years. This is however a very long period of time to live with the unsightly symptoms so treatment is often sought. Owing to the variations and severity of scleroderma the best solution for any sufferer would be to seek medical help at the first signs of trouble.

Morphea Scleroderma Variations

The other types of Morphea tend to spread to more areas of the body and inside layers and are much harder to treat. In such cases the treatment by a medical professional specializing in this field is absolutely essential. The different types of the condition are determined by its acuteness, spread and persistence in general. Some of the most common of these include Generalized Morphea, Morphea Profunda, Deep Morphea, Guttate Morphea and Bullous Morphea.

What Causes Morphea?

Morphea scleroderma is catagorised the same as the more serious condition systemic scleroderma otherwise known as systemic sclerosis, both conditions are types of autoimmune disorders, that affect the connective tissues in the body. One of the most probable causes of the condition is genetics. Although you may not be born with the condition, studies indicate that many people are born with a gene that predisposes people to autoimmune disease.

The Answer – Try This..

Source by Mark R John

Vegetable Gardening – Effective Disease Control Methods

Vigilance is required to keep your vegetable garden free from disease. Using a broad-based effort that combines various methods makes this chore easier.

Selecting proper seed and preparing the soil are a good beginning. Select healthy plants if you are planning to transplant. This keeps disease from being introduced and multiplying. Uproot diseased plants to prevent further infection.

Watering early in the day is usually the most appropriate time. Leaves then have time to dry before overnight temperatures settle in. The spread of disease can be influenced by your watering practices. If water splashes off one diseased plant onto another plant, then the disease plant may infect the healthy plant. Rainfall can produce the similar situation. Be sure to space your plants out.

Also, viruses can be spread by insects who carry them from one plant to the next. Controlling the insect population benefits you exponentially. There are also ways that gardeners and animals can spread disease. Gardeners gloves and the legs of rabbits can carry tobacco mosaic virus, for example.

Weeding your garden can also lower chances of disease. Many organisms thrive on weeds and will then enjoy your vegetables. These organisms can be transported by water movement, wind, and other vehicles.

Controlling various disease can be helped if you are able to identify the signs of these diseases.

When the out edges of lettuce touch the ground, lettuce mold can appear as a wet rot. The Sclerotinia mold is white and Botrytis mold is gray. The problem can be contained by removing the mold by extracting infected sections, or an entire plant.

Leafy vegetables commonly encounter spinach mosaic virus as well. In this case, leaves become mottled, and may later turn yellow. The plant appears wilted and stunted. Choosing resistant varieties can eliminate this problem altogether.

Fusarium can cause asparagus to wilt or rot. The spears look spindly and shoots may become yellow. The roots may rot and become discolored. Eliminate the infected plants by thinning the crop. Another common problem with asparagus is rust, cause by Puccinia fungus. Red spots appear on the shoots of spears. This fungus may survive through the winter. Prevent rust by avoiding excessive watering.

Other conditions that affect tomatoes are leaf spots and blight. If the summer has been cool, these will usually appear by mid-August. There are also fungi in the soil that can affect tomatoes. The roots of walnut trees can carry a harmful toxin to tomato plants. Dark concentric rings will appear on leaves with this condition. Allowing the leaves to dry before sunset will help you prevent these problems.

You will optimize your chances of a healthy, abundant crop if you can recognize and treat the signs of disease in the early stages.

Source by Dave Truman

Mushroom Magic – Now Official

Who would have thought that some types of mushroom hold magic health benefits? Research conducted by Research Associate Professor Min Zhang, School of Population Health at the University of Western Australia on the positive effects of eating mushrooms for women in China, proves that they do, The Agaricus family of mushrooms have a special magic, which has largely gone unnoticed, that may give us a healthy high.

Current Research

Joint research undertaken by Zhang from The University of Western Australia and Zhejiang University in China, found that eating mushrooms and drinking green tea may protect against breast cancer. Zhang reported that breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and that its rate was increasing in both developed and developing countries. Interestingly, the incidence of cancer in China was four or five times lower than in developed countries. The study hoped to show if this could be due to the use of dried and fresh mushrooms and green leaf tea in the traditional Chinese diet. Mushrooms, mushroom extracts and green tea had shown anti-carcinogenic properties which were thought to stimulate immune responsiveness against breast cancer.

The consumption of mushrooms and green tea by 2,000 women, aged from 20 to 87 in relatively affluent southeast China, was monitored. Half of the women were healthy and the others had confirmed breast cancer. On interview, it was found that fresh white button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus, and fragrant dried mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, were the most commonly eaten species of mushroom. Some of the women in the study consumed neither mushrooms nor green tea while others enjoyed both up to three times a day.

The results of the study showed that the combination of a dietary intake of mushrooms and green tea decreased breast cancer risk with an additional reduced effect on the malignance of cancer. Zhang concluded that, if confirmed consistently in other research, this inexpensive dietary intervention may have potential implications for protection against breast cancer development.

Dr. WJ Sinden from University of Pennsylvania and Dr. ED Lambert from Lambert Laboratories were the first to present their research results on the medicinal compounds of Agaricus blazei. They attracted the attention of the medical community to this mushroom. Former President Ronald Reagan used this mushroom to fight his skin cancer, which helped publicise Agaricus blazei.

How Do Mushrooms Help Fight Cancer?

The Agaricus blazei mushroom is made up of Beta- (1-3) -D-glucan, Beta- (1-4) -a -D-glucan & Beta – (1-6) -D-glucan. Known as Beta Glucan, these immune enhancing substances are proven to have very powerful anti-tumor properties. While they do not directly cause the anti-tumor effect, they do trigger the bodies' own anti-tumor response. A type of anti-tumor white blood cell known as Natural Killer cells (NK cells) is produced by the body making the level of NK cells in the body relatively easy to measure. When human subjects are given Agari in their diet, a 300% increase of NK cells in the blood is seen within 2-4 days. Natural killer cells are best known for their capacity to kill tumor cells before they become established cancers, but there has also been evidence for their role in controlling infection in the early phases of the immune response by the body.

Two Mushrooms Combine For Healthy Living

The Piedade mushroom, found in the rainforests of Brazil, is well known internationally for its healing properties. In particular, the people of the Piedade region who consumed this mushroom, were reported to have enjoyed unprecedented health and longevity, many living disease free well into their 100s. Following several clinical trials, the Piedade mushroom and the Agaricus blazei mushroom, cultivated in the mountainous region of California, were combined to form a super-hybrid and potent mushroom liquid. Using a 10 stage extraction technology that captures every nutritious element, and combined with Japanese Sasa Bamboo, a powerful antioxidant, this product is considered a powerhouse of nutrients critical to maintaining and sustaining a healthy and active lifestyle. We no longer have to go to the rainforest in Brazil or climb the mountains in California to find this pure gold.

The Key Product Benefits

Every human is susceptible to aging, environmental contaminants, chemicals in food and water, disease and the stresses of a fast paced lifestyle. Furthermore, we could all greatly benefit from effectively enhancing our immune systems. This combined mushroom product promotes health and overall well being. It increases natural killer cell activity, promotes energy and generally protects the body. It may also lower cholesterol, control blood pressure and ease arteriosclerosis. Mushrooms are a nutritional dietary food supplement with an active ingredient proven by research to be an effective enhancing agent to the immune system.

Coupled with your daily intake of activated liquid zeolite, a naturally formed mineral which strips the body of heavy metals and toxins, taking this mushroom product may firmly place you on the pathway to improved health by fighting serious health challenges. Like the people of the Piedade region, you may go on to live a healthy and happy life, enjoying the magic of mushrooms.

Source by Jannette Barrett

Things About Black Mold That You Can not Afford Not to Know

The terms "black mold" and "toxic mold" are convenient ways to refer to a genus of the family of fungi called Stachybotrys. The terms are convenient in the sense that most of the species in this genus are colored black and a few of them produce substances which are toxic to animals and human beings. Because distinguishing the different species belonging to this genus is something of a problem using the naked eye, people are prone to think that all of them produce poisonous emissions into the air.

The particular species that people refer to when they talk about "black fungus" or "toxic fungus" is Stachybotrys chartarum which is the same as the species atra (S. atra). and alternans (S. alternans). However, your attention should be called to the fact that there are other black fungi besides the species of Stachybotrys. Likewise, other genera emit spores which are harmful when inhaled.

Conditions in which Stachybotrys thrive

Stachybotrys is found in all areas of the globe. This may be the reason why people readily associate it with poisonous fungi. Colonies typically establish themselves on damp and cellulose-impregnated objects such as wood and paper. Since cellulose, a component of most organisms, has many practical uses, there are a variety of objects that can be contaminated by "black mold."

Molds hibernate during the cold winter months. More accurately speaking, it is the spores or the reproductive cells which sleep during winter. They become active in the month immediately preceding autumn at which time the spores once more waft through the air and land on moist places in the forests. There, the colonies proliferate. After a while they send out more spores into the air. These, in turn are carried into homes.

Within the home, watch out for places that are enclosed. Closets and cabinets are frequent favorites of molds. This is true especially if the closet or cabinet is located in the basement. Areas that are walled in are likewise prone to contain mold communities. The same is true for your ceiling. Floors and walls that are frequently wet are also likely places for molds to grow. These structures include the walls behind sinks and bathtubs. Basements will also usually have molds in their floors and cabinets. The moisture that seeps in from the earth underneath stays in the basement if both the door and the windows are regularly closed. And aid that has high moisture content is an ideal environment for mold colonies to thrive in.

Mold spores produce the toxin

When the "black mold" gains access to a house, it proceeds to multiply its colonies. The more of them there are, the bigger the volume of reproductive spores which will be emitted by the "black mold." As a result the air in the house becomes increasingly polluted by these spores. The point will eventually come when the people and pets living there will manifest the effects of the poison in the spores.

Among these effects are allergy-like symptoms which include reddening of the eyes and physical manifestations caused by the irritation of the various mucosal linings of the body. This irritation, when found in the membranes of the lungs can eventually lead to hemorrhaging in that organ. In fact, the most frequent cause of death from mycotoxin inhalation is precisely that. Remember that the lungs are the first location that the spores come in contact with when they are breathed in.

Source by Kelsey Libby

What Do Crickets Eat?

Crickets are insects that belong to the Order Orthoptera and the Class Insecta. Crickets are an important part of the ecosystem since they help in the breakdown of plant material. They are also an important source of food for other animals like small owls, spiders, birds, mice, shrews, snakes, frogs, raccoons and opossums. There are many species of crickets: house crickets, field crickets, ground crickets, cave crickets, mole crickets, camel crickets, snowy tree cricket and mole crickets.

Crickets are reared and used as bait for fish and as food for some pets. The Chinese also use crickets in medicines. They are popularly used as a sport like cock fights. Crickets are also believed to bring luck. Rearing crickets is very easy since they tend to eat anything. Providing a nutritious diet to the crickets is very important as it helps in breeding. Another reason is that the nutrition from the cricket’s diet would be passed on to the pets, which each these crickets.

Crickets are omnivores and feed on almost anything-usually organic materials, plant decay, grass, fruits, seedling plants, fungi and even meat. Crickets need good diet otherwise they tend to feed on each other. Cricket foods are commercially available in the market at feed shops. There are specific brands of cricket feed also. For a few crickets, tropical fish make a good meal though it would be expensive. Rolled oats with fresh fruits and vegetables is an ideal food for crickets. Cornflakes, bread and digestive biscuits can also be given. Crickets also relish fruits like apples, bananas and grapes and vegetables like tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce and cabbage. Chicken laying mash is also good cricket food and is cost effective for feeding large number of crickets. Some food supplements like alfalfa, calcium supplements and raw vegetable scraps can also be added for additional nutrition. The food can be placed in an open and shallow container that is placed firmly on the ground. This container needs to be cleaned regularly to prevent the formation of mold.

Crickets also need a good supply of water. However, keep the water away from the food to keep the food dry and fresh. Insert cotton swabs into the water vessel to prevent the crickets from drowning. Raising crickets is very easy.

Source by Josh Riverside

Cleaning and Conditioning Old 8mm Films Before DVD Transfer

To ensure that you achieve the best film to DVD transfer, cleaning and conditioning your old film reels is necessary. Prepping and reconditioning the film takes time but will ensure the optimal transfer quality. There are several factors that affect the condition of 8mm films.

Some of the damage that your old films incurred over time may be repaired while others may be not. Inspecting your Regular or Super 8mm films before digital transfer or even before loading them on a projector is essential. Scratches and unwanted lines are common in old films but these aren’t the most major challenges you encounter when transferring 8mm to DVD.

Films left too long on humid environments tend to develop molds, mildew or fungus. These microorganisms have a distinct smell and have the power to damage old films irreversibly. Usually, they start growing on the outer edges, working its way into the emulsion eventually. A growth on the outside edges is repairable but once it gets onto the emulsion, it is usually damaging enough to render the film useless.

If the fungal, mildew or mold growth is contained in the outer edges, a thorough cleaning can stop its progress before it gets to the emulsion. There are chemicals available to get rid of these microorganisms from the emulsion but it usually erases the images as well. If you got to it before severe damage has been done to it, you have to clean it up and move the film to a dryer storage area.

Shrinkage should be measured before you can have the film transferred to digital format. 0.8% to 1% shrinkage carries the possibility that your film will be further damaged if you load it on a projector. 2% shrinkage virtually renders transfer impossible even with the best labs. To measure shrinkage, a Shrinkage Gauge is used but you can also do it manually by comparing 100 frames of the film to 100 frames of new film.

Before you decide on a film transfer lab, ask them what steps they do to prepare and recondition the film. A good lab has cleaning and conditioning equipment that would perfectly work with old films as long as they are repairable. The technician should also be familiar with all the problems above.

Old films contain precious memories of loved ones are forgotten times. Cleaning and conditioning of film takes time but if you are going to spend the money to get them transferred, might as well do it right.

Source by Joe Redford

Sarcoidosis Rash – All You Need To Know and Exciting News

Sarcoidosis rash is caused by an autoimmune reaction in people with sarcoidosis, which is a type of inflammation of the tissues that starts in the lungs and lymph nodes.

In this article, we will look at some of the ins and outs of a rash caused by sarcoidosis and then at a breakthrough holistic protocol that seems to offer new found hope to people suffering from sarcoidosis.

Sarcoidosis rash develops in about 20% of the people with sarcoidosis. The cause of this disease is unknown and the symptoms can appear and disappear. In the course of sarcoidosis, lumps (called granulomas) may develop in the affected tissues. These usually clear up by themselves, except in some cases when the inflammation can cause scarring.

Symptoms of sarcoidosis include:

  • Shortness of breath, which comes and goes
  • Skin rashes, that may last for months
  • Chest pain
  • Inflammation of the eyes (uveitis)
  • Fatigue, weight loss, fever or night sweats.

However, shortness of breath and rashes are usually the first signs.

Sarcoidosis rash consists of red bumps which may appear on the face, arms, chest, shins, or buttocks. The rash appears in small raised red patches on the skin, and sometimes the patches are darker (purplish) and bigger. The rash can also be scaly, itchy; it may burn and take months to fully develop and months to disappear.

Sarcoidosis rash – Erythema nodosum

Another type of skin rash with appears with this disease is erythema nodosum (EN), which is an inflammatory condition, characterized by tender, red, painful nodules under the skin. It is usually located on the lower parts of legs. In most cases erythema nodosum goes away by itself in 6 to 8 weeks (although in some cases it may last much longer), however other skin problems can persist. Besides sarcoidosis, this condition may also be associated with other disorders such as: strep throat, Cat scratch disease, fungal diseases, infectious mononucleosis, Behcet’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases; and it may appear during pregnancy.

Other types of sarcoidosis rashes include: lupus pernio (chronic raised, hardened skin lesion), violaceous rash (on the cheeks or nose), maculopapular lesions (small raised inflamed areas of skin), and osseous involvement.

Sarcoidosis rash is treated by treating sarcoidosis itself and by treating the erythema nodosum. Medications used for treatment of erythema nodosum are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wet compresses, bed rest and occasionally cortisone orally or by injection. Prednisone can also be used to treat sarcoid rash, but it may cause the thinning of the skin. Other remedies include cortisone cream and lotoid cream or ointment.

Sarcoidosis rash is not an extremely dangerous condition on itself, but its presence should serve as an important indicator of sarcoidosis.

The issue with sarcoidosis is the shortage of understanding in contemporary medicine on the causes of the disorder. But, recently, some exciting news has been reported on the findings of root chemical imbalances and causes in a holistic treatment protocol known as the Aden protocol. You can learn more about sarcoidosis rash and the groundbreaking treatment options.

Source by Zoe Bergman

Your Guide to a Wildlife Jungle Safari in Nepal

Nepal’s Amazing Ecosystem nurtures some of the most unique and rare species of Nature. The Terai region of Nepal which is a warm sub-tropical belt of the country is home to species like Royal Bengal tigers, rhinos, leopard’s wild elephants, sloth bears, monkeys, crocodiles, and many deer species to Plus it has about 250 species of exotic birds both migratory and native.

The Terai region hosts the two main national parks aka Royal Chitwan and Bardia in Nepal. Both the above wildlife parks were established as part of the green eco conservation Policy of the Govt of Nepal in order to safeguard the animals falling under the endangered species categories and to protect the habitat they are part of. The National Parks are the most sought after places in Asia to which gives one a complete jungle experience.

Most of the Govt authorised tour operators offer trips that is inclusive of things like jungle activities & accommodation facilities along with transportation to and from the parks.

The Chitwan National Park

The Chitwan National Park has six main jungle resorts spread across its vast radius. These quiet resorts are the ideal place to enjoy the true safari experience of the Terai.

There are many jungle activities that one can take up from going on Nature walks to Bird watching etc which are one of the many ways of being part of the wild Nature while staying in the jungle. The resorts have separate cottage accommodations with attached bath or If one wants to have the “Indiana Jones” experience then one can opt for the well-furnished luxury tent camps to stay in. Canoeing on the Rapti or Narayani rivers makes for an adventurous river tour allowing one to witness the many different bird species of Chitwan. And if lucky one may even get to be close with the shy freshwater Gangetic dolphins that inhabit the rivers.

Bardia National Park

Bardia National Park is comparatively smaller than Chitwan, & it too is home to many exotic animal & bird species and it happens to be a peaceful but a wild environment in of Terai region.

Bardia is also more remote and secluded when compared to Chitwan and that explains why the visitor count to this jungle is a bit less than those visiting Chitwan and so it has fewer resorts. All resorts are located towards the peripheral area of the park and the jungle offers many Nature treks and one can even go animal spotting by going on a jeep Safari or by taking up the famous “Elephant rides” of this Park.

The jungle is home to many endangered species including tigers, wild elephants, rhinoceros, swamp deer, blackbucks, gharial crocodiles, and marsh mugger crocodiles. Lastly here is a word of advice- it is preferred to travel by air to Barida rather than take up the 15 hours long road journey to reach Barida.

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve

This park came up to be a wild life reserve in the year 1976, It is called Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and occupies a whopping 175 square kilometres of wildlife sanctuary which has a few hectars of wetlands.Located on the Eastern side of Nepal, its entry point is from the Mahindra Highway.

The reserve is a habitat for wild species such as the water buffalo (called arna), deer, nilgai, mugger crocodile, Ganges River Dolphin (also called the Gangetic Dolphin), and over 280 species of birds. Apart from the wild life species, the Park also offers Environmental safety to a major part of the Sapta Koshi region, which happens to be an offshoot of the Ganges River flood plain.

Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve

Located on the extreme south-west of the Terai is the Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve. It is spread across a 305-sq km of forest cover. It is located at an altitude of 90-270 m.

The green vegetation covers a good 70 % of the forest and the rest is full of grassland. Out of this total landmass of grassland, Suklaphanta area is notably the largest stretch of grassland of Nepal, that covers an area of 54 sq. km. Many mammalian species have been surveyed like Schaaf & Bell and the place is also a famous habitat for the swamp deer(s). The reserve is the breeding ground for Nepal’s countless number of Bengal Floridians and the Hispanic hare.

Thus, the above Forest destination(s) is what defines “Wild Nepal” & one can hire an expert guide who can tell you the many things as regards the wildlife and vegetation that is distinct to the terai region of Nepal.

Source by Komal Agrawal

How Long Does an Air Purifier Need to Clean a Room?

Have you heard it said, “A woman’s work is never done?” Your air purifier is never done either. There are six basic reasons why you need to clean your air continuously. Understanding each will help you get the clean air results you want.

Once in a While is Never Enough

The most common misconception about air cleaning is the belief it is a single task that once done is finished until another day. Air cleaning is not like vacuuming the floor, washing the dishes or the clothes. Using an air purifier for a few hours doesn’t finish the job of air cleaning.

The reason is simple. Indoor air is in a constant state of change. Particles, gases and microorganisms are constantly introduced by such things as foot traffic, coughing and sneezing, normal shedding of skin (dander) by humans as well as pets, your central heating and air system and other activities.

Six Facts About Getting Healthy Air

Most likely you want specific health benefits like allergy or asthma relief. What do you need to know to make certain your air purifier delivers those health benefits? Consider the following six issues:

  • Your personal sensitivity
  • Dilution of pollutants
  • Dispersion of pollutants
  • Reintroduction of pollutants
  • Air changes per hour (ACH)
  • Efficiency level of your air purifier

How Do These Points Relate To Your Air Cleaning Effort?

Each person has their own “tipping point.” Personal health and environmental factors make this a moving target. Certain allergens may provoke a reaction today but not tomorrow. It depends upon your total load of irritants and physical stresses.

The goal of air cleaning is to progressively dilute contaminants with clean air, keeping them below the threshold at which you react.

Why do I talk about dilution of contaminants and not total elimination? Because particles and gases do not stand still for an air purifier to capture them one by one. Normal particle motion disperses them equally throughout your room air.

This means clean air exiting your air purifier is almost immediately recontaminated by the untreated air. You can’t hold clean air on one side of the room while cleaning the air on the other side.

This is why your air purifier should run continuously. Constant treatment reduces pollutants and keeps them at a low level.

Countering air cleaning is the reintroduction of new pollutants. Reintroduction is like a leak in a boat. In time the boat sinks. Your air quality will sink also if you don’t stay ahead of the reintroduction rate for new pollutants.

Just as the boat needs steady bailing to stay afloat your room air needs continuous cleaning to stay healthy.

This is where ACH, or air changes per hour, comes into play. ACH indicates how fast you can bail your room air of contaminants.

ACH is determined by dividing the cubic feet of cleaned air your air purifier can deliver in one hour by the cubic feet of the room. Say your room is 12 x 15 with an eight foot ceiling. That’s 1440 cubic feet (12 x 15 x 8). Say your air purifier is rated to deliver as much as 165 cubic feet per minute (165 CFM) or 9900 cubic feet over an hour. Dividing 9900 by 1440 reveals your air purifier can deliver 6.8 air changes per hour in this room.

That air purifier would be an excellent choice for that room. Most experts agree that 6 ACH is needed for those with severe respiratory problems. At least 4 ACH is recommended for typical allergy relief. In any case, never less than 2 ACH for any benefit at all and then only with the most efficient air purifier.

Which brings us to the issue of efficiency. Not all the air passing through an air purifier may be cleaned. Some may bypass the filter or the machine simply can’t remove 100% of the particles passing through.

The lower the total system efficiency the more times the air needs to pass through the air purifier to achieve the same cleaning result as a higher efficiency unit. This is why I recommend using only air cleaners with proven high system efficiency. It does the job effectively with fewer ACH and thus lower fan speeds and less noise.

Putting It All Together

So, how long does an air purifier need to clean a room? Initially and with a good ACH of 4 to 6, about an hour or so to reach a point yielding good allergy relief. Of course, give your body more time to relieve itself of its allergen load. Just remember that you never really finish the job of air cleaning. You should run your air purifier continuously to maintain the healthiest possible air.

I also recommend you use the most effective and efficient air purifiers you can. Two excellent resources that stringently test and prove the value of any air cleaner they offer are achoo! and Both sites also offer good educational information about air cleaning and allergy control.

Source by J Rodgers

Candida: A Huge Link To Weight Loss And Muscle Development

I recently discovered something HUGE in the fitness world. Not just the fitness world but the entire “health” world overall. This is a little something that is largely connected to abdominal fat, and I decided to share my knowledge because most people don’t understand this idea or have never been aware of it before.

I care about seeing people change their appearance, so if I have the opportunity to bless someone with a real secret, you have to understand I wouldn’t dare hesitate. So I’ve decided to explain what this new “link to abdominal fat” is, and how I addressed this problem to start getting the maximum results.

Severity Of Candida:

Alright, let’s access the depths of the indicated issue I recently heard about. This recently discovered issue is a powerful enemy our bodies are fighting against every single day. Its called Candida. You may or might possibly not have been informed of this, and just to be certain, I’m here to explain the severity of Candida.

This Candida is a powerful fungal infection within our body that literally every individual has, but nobody seems to know much about it because most people don’t educate themselves the way they ought to.

It is a huge deal and our bodies are fighting against it everyday but the problem is that very few individuals educate themselves about their bodies and how to enhance their health.

This is why I’m here to educate you, personally, about how to strengthen your body and give yourself that long lost energy that’s “supposedly” lost with growing age.

Yes, lively energy can actually seem somewhat lost as individuals grow much older, but that isn’t the main reason for our drastic loss of energy and our increase in fatigue. The reason our bodies seem to lose all functioning abilities is because of Candida. Candida isn’t exactly a “disease” but is more of a health problem that can suck the life away from people.

There are countless ways to receive Candida and enable a clear entrance for it into your system, but the most typical way is through your nose and mouth. Candida might be found all around us because it’s a type of fungus, but the problem is that it isn’t so easily exploited.

The main problem with Candida is that it multiplies and grows within our internal system without us even knowing it.

Candida is a fungal growth in our bodies that multiplies and grows within us without us even knowing it. It harms us and increases dramatically because it feeds off of the sugar that we ingest day after day. Unlike most parasites and fungi, candida isn’t based upon the feeding off of merely one thing like most parasites and fungi feed off sugars or dairy products.

Instead Candida feeds off most anything and everything we ingest each and every day, and isn’t easy to be relieved of. That’s why there is a specific diet you can go on to drown Candida and destroy it from your body so you can maximize your health and results.

So many individuals are left clueless why they possess no energy or seem to have abdominal fat that’s literally impossible to eradicate.

The Link To Abdominal Fat Loss:

Losing abdominal fat is the main issue with Candida, but most individuals just think their fat problem pertains to the wrong diet or wrong exercises.

The fact is you won’t aren’t capable of losing any of that frustrating abdominal fat unless you happen to go on a Candida diet and kill that fungi off within your body. You can do all you want including exercise and workout, but the problem is internal, within your body, and the only type of diet that will naturally help you lose abdominal fat is a Candida diet.

Candida diets are extremely powerful because you don’t even need to exercise and workout to see drastic results. You ‘ll begin to see your body trim down drastically just because you’re wiping out the Candida within your body with the specific diet designed to destroy that fungal nuisance.

Your abdominal fat will begin to reduce all naturally just because you’re handling the internal problem of Candida.

Now Candida causes countless internal problems within our bodies besides excess abdominal fat buildup and loss of energy.

What This Fungus Can Cause:

Due to Candida, you lose capability to concentrate, develop skin problems, parasitic problems, and even develop types of bodily fungi (including Athlete’s Foot).

Due to high volumes of toxins found in the colon and liver, you will find numerous things that you might possibly be experiencing MAINLY due to Candida.

Here’s Just A Small List:

A heart that seems over-stressed or weak

-Any form of body aches or pains

-Headaches or Hot Flashes

-Overweight & a Pot Belly

-Memory Loss and Terrible Concentration

-Depression or Insomnia

-Fatigue or inability to workout due to over-exhaustion

-Skin problems including acne and even wrinkles

-Weakened brain and ability to remember

-Weakened muscles and joints, or even stiffness

Most people don’t understand the importance of cleansing their body from this terrible fungi. The list of problems from Candida goes on and on, but the main point is that you might be completely unable to lose abdominal fat no matter what you do, because you have Candida within your body.

I highly suggest you go on a Candida detoxification program not just to lose permanent abdominal fat, but to live healthier and get back that natural energy that you thought you once lost.

I’ve been through a Candida detoxification program and while it was my first time on this dieting cleanse, I can personally see why this cleanse is so extremely powerful. I notice I am much more lively and have much more energy to get through my workouts, and thats just the beginning of the list. I sleep better, gain muscle much faster, and seem to get more out of my fat-blasting workouts. I highly recommend a Candida detoxification program to anyone.

It’s not just one of the main ways to destroy abdominal fat, but it allows you to live a much healthier lifestyle. If anything, go on this Candida detoxification cleanse to clean your body from harmful toxins and bacteria that could be destroying you internally.

If you have a true desire to change your health and abdominal appearance permanently, I highly recommend you look into and research exactly why a Candida detoxification plan will improve your overall health and Fitness results. Personally I wish I could reach the entire planet and communicate to them the importance of a Candida cleanse.

However, I can only reach you right now since your looking at this article, and thats good enough for me if I get my point across to you. So again, by going on a Candida detoxification program, you can lose abdominal fat permanently, gain muscle faster, possess more energy for workouts, and think more clearly. With these benefits in mind, let’s get into the actual program itself.

A Candida Diet Cleanse Program:

Now you need to find a very specific program that is meant to cleanse your body of toxins and any signs of Candida, which will allow for your body to do so much more than it used to be able to. Since Candida is a natural part of the body’s gut, you need to research a cleanse that will do major things for your stomach fat.

What Foods To Avoid On Your Candida Diet Cleanse:

-Foods high in sugar and other foods that turn into sugar in your system

-High carbohydrates that are bad for your system

-Alcohol and fermented foods like mushrooms

-Foods high in starch

-Fresh fruits (high in natural sugar)

-Foods high in gluten and contain yeast

-Cheese and dairy products

What Foods To Eat On Your Candida Diet Cleanse:

-Vegetables and fruits low in natural sugar

-Protein foods like meats

-Nuts and berries

-Natural Green Foods

-Yogurt not sweetened with much sugar

-Grains that have a low gluten concentrate

As you can see, a Candida cleanse is a very powerful diet cleanse and really needs to be taken seriously. Your commitment is key to success with any diet, but particularly with a Candida detoxification program, so hunker down and prepare for whatever you’ll have to endure.

Just two days into it, you feel a drastic difference in energy and clarity of thought. Imagine what great things will happen for you if you rid yourself og Candida and research the best Candida Diet Cleanse for your specific body type and lifestyle. Along with fat loss and muscle development, your health will become greatly maximized as well. So, go out and start researching different Candida diets so you can increase your health and live a better, healthier lifestyle.

Source by Jason Camacho

Antibiotics And The Mode Of Action

Technically, an antibiotic is a substance that is produced by one microorganism and it is capable of killing or inhibiting the growth of another microorganism which can a virus, bacteria, fungi, yeast, protozoan or any other pathogen.

The first antibiotic that was developed was Penicillin, a biological compound that is produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium. It was discovered by Alexander Fleming in the year 1928. After that, several other types of antibiotics produced by different species of bacteria and fungi were isolated. Some of these include cephalosporins; aminoglycosides such as streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin; ansamycins such as geldanamycin and carabecephems; glycopeptides like vancomycin; macrolides like erythromycin and azithromycin, penicillin, quinolone, polypeptide and sulfonamide.

All these antibiotics have different mode of action by which they act as therapeutic agents. Some of the modes of action by different antibiotics are mentioned below:

Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors:

Bacteria contain murein or peptidoglycan that is highly essential in maintaining the cell wall structure. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors such as beta-lactams, cephalosporins and glycopeptides block the ability of microorganisms to synthesize their cell wall by inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan.

Interfering with Protein Synthesis:

These classes of antibiotics inhibit the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. Some examples include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides and macrolides.

Cell Membrane Inhibitors:

Antibiotics such as polymyxins disrupt the integrity and structure of cell membranes, thereby killing them. These set of antibiotics are mostly effective on gram negative bacteria because these are the bacteria that contain a definite cell membrane.

Effect on Nucleic Acids:

DNA and RNA are extremely essential nucleic acids present in every living cell. Antibiotics such as quinolones and rifamycins bind to the proteins that are required for the processing of DNA and RNA, thus blocking their synthesis and thereby affecting the growth of the cells.

Competitive Inhibitors:

Also referred to as anti-metabolites or growth factor analogs, these are antibiotics that competitively inhibit the important metabolic pathways occurring inside the bacterial cell. Important ones in this class are sulfonamides such as Gantrisin and Trimethoprim.

Source by Pauline Go

10 Best Tomatoes To Grow In All Climates

The variety of tomatoes available to grow in Melbourne is multiplying by leaps and bounds year after year. While it will take pages and pages to list and describe each and every one, I will use this article to describe 10 of the best tomatoes available to grow in Melbourne. Other tomato types I will give a quick mention.

As mentioned, the types of tomatoes now available around Melbourne has grown to enormous proportions. Names like, Bragger Tomato, Money Maker Tomato, Cherry Ripe, Humpty, Top Dog, Mellow Yellow, Moonshot and Tickled Pink are fast making a name for themselves in the world of tomatoes.

Following is a list of ten fantastic tomato varieties in order of their current popularity:

Grosse Lisse Tomato: An old fashioned tomato and favourite of die-hard tomato growers. The tomato is large, globe shaped and very fleshy. It fruits mid to late in the season and does require staking. The variety has recently been imp[roved to a hybrid which resists Verticillium, Fusarium and Bacterial wilt.

Beefsteak Tomato: Large round, very meaty variety with a sweet and juicy flavour. It is a tall plant that will require staking. Fruits appear early to mid season. Is resistant to some fungal diseases but can require preventative measures.

Bragger Tomato: As the name suggests, a tomato that makes tongues wag. Extra large, very tasty and great to use in soups, sandwiches, salads, barbeques and other hot dishes and for preserving. Is resistant to tomato mosaic virus, nematodes and fusarium and verticillium wilt. Tall plant requires staking. Can fruit early to late season.

Roma & San Marzano: I have placed these two tomato varieties together because of their similarities. They are basically the same tomato named after two different regions of Italy. While these medium, oval shaped tomatoes have great many uses, they are favoured more for their ability to produce tomato sauces and pastes. They may be only a small to medium sized tomato, but they are packed with juice and that wonderful true tomato flavour. Usually resistant to many fungal diseases, they give growers an easy run for their money. Fruits early in the season.

Apollo Tomato: Like the Gosse Lisse tomato, Apollo is a tried and true all time favourite. It’s a large fleshy tomato and is ideal for sandwiches, salads soups and sauces. Its popularity is due to its ability to set fruit in cooler climates and earlier than most other tomato types. It fruits from veru early in the season to late, making it one of the most prolific producers of all. Staking required.

Rouge de Marmande: Along with Allans Early, this tomato is one of the earliest fruiting varieties around. Also known as, Adelaide Tomato, Burkes Backyard Tomato and Italian Tomato, this variety can endure cooler temperatures and is absolutely ideal for Melbourne Spring. It can be planted as early as September. Tomato is rose coloured, large and somewhat ugly, but with a great for taste. Flesh is firm, nearly crisp. Fruits very early in the season. Staking required.

Cherry Tomato: Only tiny but full of taste. Perhaps the sweetest of all tomatoes and a definite favourite with kids of all ages. Melbourne loves this tomato and backyards nearly everywhere have at least one of these sprawling, rather unsightly plants growing. Can fruit up until mid winter and only extreme cold knocks them out. Resistant to most diseases. Fruits early and late in season. Does require staking.

First Prize/Patio Prize: These two tomato varieties are also known as bush tomatoes because they require no staking. They grow to about half a metre on strong stalks and produce great tasting, medium sized tomatoes in several crops. Plant mid to late in the season. No staking needed.

Black Russian Tomato: Purple to black in colour, medium firm tomato. This heirloom variety has a taste all of its own and that taste is fantastic. Fruits mid to late in season and requires staking.

Mellow Yellow: This tomato is a favourite for those with tummy problems caused by acid in every day tomatoes. While rich in taste it is mild on acid. A large, bright yellow tomato, it can be used as any other tomato. Can be planted early in the season and will need staking.

While there are perhaps thousands of more tomato types out there, these are just a popular few. The rest is up to you with a little experimentation, you may even come up with your very own variety!

Source by James Koutlis

Holidays in the Caribbean

Chances are, you haven’t heard of Peppercorn Day. A holiday in Bermuda, Peppercorn Day may be the oddest holiday in the Caribbean. Its history dates to 1797 when a group of Freemasons began renting the Old State House in St. George, for the sum of one peppercorn. In 1816, the holiday tradition began. Every year on the Wednesday closest to April 23, amidst pomp and circumstance, a horse-drawn carriage brings the governor to collect the peppercorn.

While Peppercorn Day is exclusive to Bermuda, many Caribbean islands share similar holidays. For instance, while the specifics differ, many islands celebrate their heritage with national holidays. In Dominica, late October ushers in Creole Week. Part of Creole Week is Heritage Day, held in a different village every year and paying homage to that village’s unique aspects and important citizens. Island-wide, the biggest celebration of the week is Creole Day. Everyone dresses up in traditional Creole fashion and enjoys Creole style parades, music, and food.

Similarly, Jamaica’s Maroon Day (January 6) pays tribute to the Maroons, freed slaves who fled to the South coast of Jamaica to start their lives anew. Their ancestors still live there and host the biggest celebration of the holiday, the Accompong Maroon Festival. Drawing visitors from all over the globe, this huge affair had an attendance of 16,000 people in 2005. The feast includes traditional dancing, singing, and ceremonies.

Then there’s Indian Arrival Day (May 30) in Trinidad and Tobago. Although it was only made official in the 1990s, the island’s sizable Indian population has celebrated the holiday for many years. It commemorates the arrival of indentured servants from India.

Many Caribbean countries celebrate their independence from conquering nations, such as Spain, the Netherlands, or France. Holidays honoring national heroes who fought for independence are common, like Errol Barrow Day in Barbados. But the islands also retain holidays from the conquerors, like Bastille Day, Queen’s Day, and the Prince of Wales’ Birthday. Emancipation and slavery abolition holidays are also national holidays on many islands.

Perhaps the largest number of holidays in the Caribbean are of religious origin. Days venerating patron saints can be found throughout the islands, but nowhere to the extent of Puerto Rico. Even Puerto Rico’s cities have their own patron saints with attendant holidays. However, the most important is St. John’s Day, celebrating the island’s patron saint and namesake of its capital city, San Juan. Beach parties end with people walking backward into the ocean and falling into the water to honor the tradition of baptism by St. John.

Christmas in the Caribbean may be more enthusiastic than anywhere else in the world. The twelve days of Christmas are still celebrated on many islands, culminating in Epiphany on January 6. On Guadeloupe, Epiphany marks the beginning of Carnival season, which continues until Lent. The carnival reaches its peak on Shrove Tuesday, when businesses close for five days so all can participate in the parades.

Even the weather has a place on the holiday calendar. In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the fourth Monday in July is Hurricane Supplication Day. Marking the beginning of their hurricane season, it’s a low-key day for people to go to church to pray that hurricanes pass them by, or at least spare lives and buildings. If all goes well, Hurricane Thanksgiving Day follows on the third Monday of October.

Holiday celebrations contribute greatly to the vibrant culture in the Caribbean. If you’re planning a trip there, consider going when you can take part in one. There’s no better way to truly experience island culture.

Source by Karen Joslin

The Serious Dangers of Mold and Mildew in Your House

Two years of severe hurricane hits along the Gulf Coast and heavy rains and flooding this spring in the Northeast are providing a nationwide breeding ground for indoor mold and mildew growth (some deadly) now that summer heat is here. What is the solution?

The subject is surrounded by controversy. The Centers for Disease Control, Institute of Medicine, as well as scientists and doctors at Harvard University, Mayo Clinic, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and several State Health Agencies have all looked at the problem. There have been several studies conducted by medical researchers over the past few years looking for any linkages between various respiratory and physical ailments and deaths and the presence of molds in our living space. While some say there is a linkage, others say the facts do not support that.

Here are the facts. Mold is everywhere; inside and outside. Some molds are good (penicillin), some are very toxic and emit gases that can be inhaled (Stachybotrys "black mold"). Although some people apparently are not bothered by mold, all varieties have the potential to cause illness. Mold reproduces by generating spores that are released into the air, where they land on moist surfaces. They can grow on any organic surface such as wallpaper, ceiling tiles, carpeting, wallboard and wood. They thrive in dark, warm, moist locations, like under carpets, inside walls and ceilings. They will also contaminate items that come in contact with those surfaces.

Mold can trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks in many. Complaints of flu-like symptoms, chronic fatigue syndrome, memory impairment, migraines, sick building syndrome, dizziness and nosebleeds are common. These are the mild symptoms. Many researchers claim that mold can attack several main body systems, including the brain, central nervous and immune systems and have been the direct cause of some deaths. Regardless of where you stand on this issue, who wants to smell mold / mildew and inhale spores from household fungus? They can lodge in your lungs (remember dark, warm and moist). Asthmatics, infants and individuals suffering immune system deficiencies are particularly susceptible.

So, what should you do if you think that your home might have a mold / mildew problem? Here's a suggested 5 step process:

• Mold Inspection- retain a qualified, certified mold inspection firm to evaluate your home and determine cause of mold and severity of infestation.

• Isolation of the Area- if there is a mold problem, you will want to isolate the area carefully to prevent carryover into non infested areas during clean up.

• Clean Up / Remediation- care should be taken to not stir up the mold; if it is severe, or in the walls, a specialized remediation firm (in space suits) may have to be used and materials removed in hazardous waste containers.

• Repair of the Cause- if there is structural damage or leaky plumbing causing a moisture problem, fix it.

• Maintenance / Prevention- an ongoing program to ensure no recurrence of the cause and use of proven purification technology to maintain a clean environment and kill mold growth.

On this last point, emphasis is placed on use of technology that has a proven track record of mold abatement. HEPA filters and electrostatic filters that are called purifiers are not effective on mold / mildew. There is, however, affordable, proprietary and safe technology currently available that has a demonstrated ability to sanitize surfaces from a variety of microbials and to stop mold / mildew growth. This effective technology has become widely accepted since it's use by the government during the 9/11 Pentagon cleanup, is currently in use in several government facilities and is available to the general public through an authorized dealer network. For more information visit []

Source by Bruce Bley

How to Get the Best Effect From Ringworm Creams

About 20% of the people will get ringworm at one point in their lives. It is an extremely infectious fungal problem that thrives in the summer. The symptoms of this problem vary depending on where the infection is. Often, it causes circular rashes with raised, red edges and healthy skin in the middle. The infection can also appear on the groin (as jock itch), on the nails, on the feet (as athlete’s foot), and on the scalp. Some of these infections are harder to treat than others, but good hygiene and ringworm creams can cure most of them.

Topical anti-fungal treatments can be found over-the-counter. Your doctor can prescribe stronger variants. In cases wherein the ringworm is particularly severe, which is often the case with infections of the scalp or nails, oral medication may be prescribed.

To make sure that the ringworm infection is completely cured, you must learn how to apply the treatment properly. Most of the anti-fungal creams have instructions included, but here are some basic steps that will help you.

1. Buy the right kind of anti-fungal cream. Some of them are formulated to help you with all kinds of fungus, while others were created for specific strains. Make sure that the kind you are buying is effective against ringworm. These often have ingredients like Miconazole, Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole, Terbinafine and Clotrimazole with Betamethasone.

2. Find out how often you should use the ringworm cream. Most over-the-counter treatments should be used twice a day, while others specify that it should be applies in the morning and in the evening. Stronger kinds may only need to be used once a day. The package of the cream contains this information, or it may be included in your prescription. This depends on how strong the formulation of the cream is, and it is very important to prevent side effects and cure the problem.

3. Clean the infected area. Some people cover the infected area with bandages and gauze to prevent spreading the ringworm. If you do so, remove any covering and wash the rash with soap and water. Afterwards, pat it dry so that the cream can be absorbed properly. This step ensures that the treatment gets in contact with the fungus, and is not contaminated with dirt and sweat.

4. Wash your hands before and after applying the cream. Again, this makes sure that you apply the cream without any contaminants.

5. Apply a thin layer of the ringworm cream on the infected area and surrounding areas to prevent the rash from growing. What looks like healthy skin may already be infected, and just asymptomatic. The cream should extend beyond the rash by about four to six centimeters in diameter.

6. Allow the cream to dry so that the cream is fully absorbed. Do not cover the area if the cream is still moist. If you use a bandage, make sure it is clean and dry because the fungi thrive in warm, wet places.

7. Repeat this treatment as often as prescribed. Most over-the-counter products should be used for two to four weeks, while prescription medication may have shorter cycles.

8. Even if the symptoms already disappeared, keep using the product for at least a week after. If no visible change has happened after a week of treatment, it would be best to consult a doctor. In case of allergic reactions, such as excessive redness, itchiness, or burning, stop treatment and talk to a doctor.

While undergoing treatment, make sure to prevent spreading the infection to other parts of the body. Wash clothes and beddings in a bleach solution. If possible, try to trace where the infection came from. This is commonly common showers and bathrooms, the beach, public pool, or the gym.

Try to change your routine to prevent getting the ringworm again. Wear shoes or flip-flops in communal showers, bathrooms, and on the beach. If you use gym equipment with padding, make sure it is dry and free of others’ sweat before using. Refrain from borrowing other people’s clothes and always wash clothes you just bought.

Source by Nicole R. Peterson

7 Natural Ways to Cure a Vaginal Yeast Infection at Home

Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the presence of an overgrowth of the Candida albicans fungus. This yeast-like fungus can be found in all of our bodies quite naturally. It usually doesn’t cause us any problems because our good bacteria keeps it in check.

Unfortunately, occasions can arise that upset this ‘good bacteria v bad bacteria’ balance such that the Candida is able to multiply and grow causing yeast infections.

And, being a fungus, Candida absolutely loves dark, moist and warm conditions. Which is why yeast infections are more likely to take place in the vagina, mouth, anus, arm-pits, etc., with the vagina being particularly prone.

Vaginal yeast infection symptoms are things like; itching, inflammation, redness, swelling, pain when urinating, thickish / clumpy white discharge, and painful intercourse.


By far the most popular treatments are over-the-counter antifungal medications in the form of creams, lotions, and pessaries, etc. Depending on the severity of your infection, you can get 1 day, 3 day or 7 day treatments.

Typical of these are; Monistat, Vagistat, Femstat, Gynezol,Gyne-Lotrimin, Mycelex, and so on.

Although these can be effective in eliminating the symptoms, they can have some side effects for some people. And, particularly where the infection is severe or recurring, you may need to repeat the treatment.

But one of the problems with frequent treatments is that the fungus can build-up a resistance to the drug, thus making it ineffective.

Another issue is that they only address the symptoms, i.e. killing the fungus to eliminate the symptoms. What they don’t do is address the root causes of these infections…

The real cause of infection is the condition that causes the good v bad bacteria imbalance in the first place. The main reasons for this imbalance are; friendly bacteria depletion, a compromised immune system, pH imbalance, hormonal imbalance, too high sugar levels in the blood, and some drugs.

However, there are many natural ways to cure vaginal yeast infections by getting rid of the symptoms and addressing the underlying issues…


(1) Apply plain, natural yogurt over the vulva. Coat a tampon in yogurt and insert at night, removing next morning. Repeat nightly until the symptoms disappear. Then use for another 2 nights just to make sure.

(2) Crush a raw, peeled clove of garlic into a paste and do the same as with the yogurt. Except, that for internal use, just make a tampon using a peeled raw garlic clove wrapped in muslin or fine gauze. Some women just insert the whole clove without any material.

(3) Run a low bath of warm water and add a cup of raw, unpasteurized, organic apple cider vinegar to it. Swish around to mix it. Then sit in the bath for around 20 minutes keeping your vaginal area submerged and gently lapping water against it.

(4) Go to a sugar-free diet. Avoid all sugars and sugar products including chocolates, sweets, cakes, and so on. Many packaged and canned foods have sugar, so always check the labels.

(5) Stop using perfumed women’s hygiene products as they alter the vaginal pH. Use only un-scented, plain toilet paper for the same reason. Avoid douching as well.

(6) Stop wearing tight jeans or any other tight bottoms as this tends to make the vaginal area sweaty. Wear loose bottoms, skirts or dresses.

(7) Wear underwear made of cotton instead of man-made fibres which don’t allow the area to breathe and stay dry.

There you have 7 natural tips on how to cure your vaginal yeast infection. Try them and see how you get on. Some might be better than others for you. The key is not just to get rid of the symptoms, but also to address the root cause(s).

Source by John Cielo

Tips to Finding Your Yeast Infection Remedy

What is Yeast Infection? Yeast infection is a fungal infection commonly caused by Candidas or specifically Candida Albicans fungus. Although it may occur in different parts of the body it is found most often in the body where it is moist, such as the mouth, vagina and skin. The most common types are vaginal candidiasis, thrush (oral), diaper rash and nail bed infection. Though studies have shown that 3 in 4 women get yeast infection at some point in their lives, it is also common among men and children.

Physical Symptoms: When the infection affects the skin in children or babies, it shows up in dry and rough skin sometimes with rashes, redness and itch. Symptoms of a male yeast infection include a reddish rash, that maybe accompanied by itching or burning sensation at the tip of the penis. Most women who suffer from yeast infection experience itching around the area of the vagina. They will also feel pain during sexual intercourse as well as when they urinate. Some women also describe a white vagina discharge that looks like cheese. Some other symptoms includes fever, chest pain and blood in the urine.

Internal and Behavioural Symptoms: Possible side effects due to over the counter remedies are dizziness, lightheadednes, nausea, stomach upset, anemia, damage to liver, intestines and digestive system. Repeated use of prescription medications may even cause behavioural symptoms like lack of energy, clumsiness, slow reflexes, depression, Impaired thinking and judgment.

Transmission: A misconception in many people is that only women get genital yeast infections. It can occur to anybody because all of us have yeast in our body system but the problem takes place only when there is an overgrowth. However, anyone with diabetes or impaired immune systems (eg. HIV) or prolonged antibiotic use are more prone to this infection. It is possible for a man to contract a genital yeast infection if he has unprotected sexual intercourse with a partner who has an infection. However, just because your partner has a yeast infection doesn’t mean you will get one too. Contracting yeast infections through sexual intercourse is uncommon. Other contributing factors include pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives or birth pills and steroids. Women of menopausal age are also more susceptible.

Prevention: You can prevent the occurrence of yeast infection by adopting to some simple preventive measures. Avoid consuming foods with high sugar content. Consume probiotics, which are living microorganisms similar to the “good” bacteria that live in and on the body. A good source of probiotics is organic yogurt with live bacterial cultures.

If you are experiencing the infection, make sure that you do not wear tight panties or jeans or wet clothes especially those made of synthetic materials. Keep dry and sleep without under garments if the infection is near the genitals. Avoid also the use of perfumes or other sprayed products on the affected areas as these may worsen the condition.

Remedies: If this is your first time experiencing this infection, it might advisable to consult your family doctor for a proper diagnosis. There are many conventional, over the counter treatments available. However, due to the high chances of recurrence, coupled with the possible side effects earlier mentioned, it would be best to opt for your yeast infection remedy through natural means instead. Prolonged drug use may also cause the infection to become resistant to these medications, rendering it ineffective.

1. Yogurt. One of the best way to get natural probiotics is to include yogurt in your everyday diet to prevent the onset of yeast infection. Aside from ingesting yogurt, you may choose to apply it directly to the affected area. The yogurt has to be unflavored and without any sugar content. In the case of vaginal candidiasis, apply yogurt to the vulva and vagina directly works as well or use a tampon covered with yogurt. Do this is before going sleep.

2. Tea Tree Oil. Contains natural anti-fungal properties and is considered a powerful antiseptic. Dilute tea tree oil and apply it to the affected area. It can only be used for topical application, do not consume this product.

3. Honey. Honey is also considered another natural cure for yeast infection. Simply apply honey onto the affected area and rinse after 30 minutes using lukewarm water.

4. Vinegar, Apple Cider. You may opt to do step 3 using apple cider vinegar as a natural treatment, leaving it overnight before rinsing it off.

5. Water. By far, the most cost-efficient and effective way of treating the infection is to increase your water intake. Water helps to maintain the natural PH levels of the body, this cures the infection fast. If you drink all the water your body needs, you will see a great reduction in all types of sicknesses including yeast infection.

These holistic remedies against yeast infection are effective, proven methods that can be used for recurring conditions without any side effects. If you and your partner have symptoms of the infection in your genitals, it is important that both be treated. Refrain from sexual contact until all signs and symptoms of the infection are gone, otherwise you may reinfect each other. If a woman experiences 2 or 3 times of vaginal candidiasis in a year, it is generally recommended that a culture be taken for testing to know the how best to treat it. Again, if you are unsure of your condition because it is your first time, a chronic or recurring case of infection, seek consultation with a physician. While this article is not a comprehensive guide, the author hopes it goes a long way to helping you find your yeast infection remedy.

Source by Luke Benjamin Page

Morel Mushrooms – How to Store and Preserve For Future Use

Morels, like all fungi and mushrooms, have an extremely short shelf life once picked. However, there are a variety of ways to store morels for future use.

Once picked, morels should be washed, cleaned and refrigerated quickly if they are to be eaten or frozen for storage. Morels (particularly those later in the picking season) are attractive to ants and other insects, both for the interior spores, and for the rough shelter they offer.

Morels, like many wild fungi and mushrooms, go soggy very quickly if not properly handled or stored, due to the spore content within them. Morels are largely water, anyway, so they do not hold up well, particularly in heat. Do not pack them too tightly when picking or storing, as morels compact easily.

Since salt bothers (and even kills) many insects, one of the easiest ways to clean morels is to dissolve 2 tbsp of salt into each quart of warm water used, and immerse the morels in the solution, washing them for several minutes, letting them stand for one-half hour, then draining. If you prefer a more thorough wash, either slit the morels in half lengthways before immersing, or puncture the narrow end to allow easier drainage after washing in the salty solution. Be sure to cut off the fibrous root-like tendrils, before washing, that are likely to be attached to the base of the morel when picking. This root-like mass, and the valleys of the morel honeycomb, tend to pick up small particles of dirt, sand and humus, contributing to a gritty, unpleasant texture with poorly cleaned morels.

Morels can be dehydrated, using a standard fruit dehydrator (available at Wal-Mart). Be sure that the morels are completely dehydrated, then store in a paper bag in a dry, dark pantry. To rehydrate morels, simply soak them for 1-2 hours in warm water or thin sauce.

Dried morels are great for taking on a backpacking or camping trip, because of their light weight, durability and ease of rehydrating. They are perfect complements to almost any meat or eggs, and work well with true wildcraft harvests of boiled cattail root or fried dandelion greens! Many campers use dried morels like chewing tobacco, letting the morels rehydrate between gums and cheek for a real time-delayed taste explosion.

To freeze morels, wash & drain them, then in a deep fry pan, melt butter, add pepper (or garlic, if desired) and the morels, and cook over medium low heat for up to 5-8 minutes. With the liquid, store the mushrooms in an airtight container or freezer bag in the refrigerator for up to 6 months.

If using morels within 2-3 days of picking, wash thoroughly and drain until dry. Place loosely in a paper bag and store in the refrigerator, as you would with white button mushrooms.

Source by Jim Briggs

Ash Dieback in Garden Trees

Ash disease in garden trees

Ash dieback has hit the headlines recently as the government attempts to stop this disease from devastating ash trees in Britain. So far most of the talk has been about woodlands but what should you do if you have an ash tree in your garden? What symptoms should you watch out for and what should you do if you suspect a tree in your garden to be infected?

The disease is caused by the fungus Chalara fraxinea which is spread by wind borne spores. The first symptoms you may see are spots on the leaves or you may notice that the tree is losing its leaves before autumn arrives. Initially small twigs will die as the disease spreads in from the leaves. Later, as the disease enters larger branches, a canker (discoloured, roughened bark) will spread upwards and downwards from where the infected twig joins the branch. This is often a rough diamond shape. As the fungus kills the tissue more limbs will die back until eventually the whole crown is dead.

The disease has killed 90 per cent of ash trees in Denmark and is prevalent throughout Europe now. Most of the cases recorded in Britain to date are related to imported nursery stock. As so many plants bought at garden centres and nurseries are now imported from Europe, it is quite possible that your garden ash tree may be infected if it has been planted fairly recently. Unless your garden is a large country garden with ash trees grown around as part of wind break, it is likely that you won’t have common ash (Fraxinus excelsior ) planted in your garden. Claret ash or Fraxinus angustifolia ‘Raywood’ is a relative of common ash. With its smaller stature, more delicate leaves and beautiful claret colour in autumn, it makes a good specimen tree. Although Claret ash has been known to host the disease, none have yet exhibited the classic dieback. However this cannot be ruled out in the future and you should still keep an eye on this tree. Mountain ash or Sorbus aucuparia is actually a different species and does not suffer from this disease.

If you do see any of these symptoms in your garden tree it is very important that you contact the Forestry Commission Plant Health Centre on 01420 23000. You should not try to deal with it yourself as it is vital that the Forestry Commission knows of all new cases. Also there are other diseases which cause similar symptoms. There is also an app for smartphone users which allows them to report sightings as well as upload photos of suspected cases. Forget about hashtags, get ashtag, which can be downloaded from This application could save the lives of many trees.

Source by Sally Fonseca

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