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Pregnancy Loss and Chromosome Testing for Miscarriages


Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is actually quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the following questions:

  • What causes miscarriage?
  • How common is pregnancy loss?
  • What type of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
  • How can chromosome testing help?

Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is essential that it have exactly the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to have a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in the past the miscarriage would have appeared to be just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to perform is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it may be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Most of the time, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

For more information about microarray genetic testing for miscarriage tissue or IVF with PGD visit www.genesecurity.net



Source by Melissa Maisenbacher

Ringworm Symptoms and Causes – are you Sure it is Ringworm

Ringworm is often mistakenly caused by a worm. However, contrary to its name, ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin. It is contagious and could affect any part of the body. It is characterized by reddish to brownish bumpy patch of skin. It could be lighter at the center that seems to appear like a ring.

The fungi that cause ringworm are feed on keratin that is present in the outer layer of the skin, hair and nails. The fungi could easily thrive and live in a moist skin, hot and hidden from light.

Transmission of Ringworm

Ringworm is a common skin disease that attacks all walks of life regardless of age and race. It is very common especially among children who have a very active lifestyle. Their sweat as they play outside could moist the skin and make it vulnerable to fungi attacks.

Ringworm could be easily transmitted through skin to skin contact and contaminated items such as hairbrushes, slippers, shoes and socks. Ringworm does not only exist in humans but is also a very common disease among domestic animals like dogs, cats and farm animals. Human can contact the fungi that cause ringworm from these animals. Chicken is one of the most susceptible sources of ringworm because it stays in dirty and moist environment.

Those suffering from eczema and other skin problems are more likely to catch ringworms too because their skin’s outer later in no longer intact.

Types of Ringworms

Many species of fungi causes ringworm. However, the most common these are the dermathophytes, which could attack various parts of the body. Tinea pedis affects the feet. This is commonly called as athlete’s food. More than it cause the feet to become itchy, it also gives the feet foul odor. Tinea unguinum attacks the fingernails and toenails. This kind seems to eat the nails. Tinea corposis is responsible for the arms, legs and trunk. Tinea crusis, also known as jock itch, is found in the groin area. Tinea manatum affects the hands and palms. Tinea capitis, which is often mistaken as dandruff, affects the scalp.

Ringworm Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of ringworm are physically visible. When there is already an appearance of one or more itchy patches in the skin with define edges most likely these are ringworms. Ringworms are different with rashes or other patches like those caused by insect bites. Ringworm patches appear like rings because they have lighter centers. When they are found in the nails, usually the nails discolor, thicken and fall.

As part of diagnosis, doctors may take skin scrapping or examine plucked hairs for traces of fungi. Fungi are very tiny beings so they are examined under the help of microscope. However, there are kind of fungi that fluoresce under a black light.

Skin lesions are also signs of the presence of ringworm infection. These lesions are called dermatophytids.

Prevention of Ringworm Infection

Fungi like to thrive in moist areas like locker rooms, swimming pools and skin folds. The prevention of ringworm infection is better than waiting for its attack then curing it. Some of the prevention tips are as follows: Avoid sharing of clothing, always wear slippers especially in moist areas, avoid skin to skin contacts or shower with antifungal soap after a contact sports, dry your feet first before wearing socks and avoid contacts with pets that stay in dirty areas of the house.



Source by Dr John Anne

Type 2 Diabetes – Foods to Eat and Stay Away From

When first diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, people immediately have questions regarding a list of foods for a diabetic to eat. They want to know which foods are safe to eat, and which foods they should stay away from.

With type 1 diabetes, the body produces no insulin at all. In Type 2 diabetes, the body either produces too little insulin, or the insulin that is produced is ignored by the body’s cells. Either way, the body still requires insulin in order to use glucose to generate energy.

diabeticdietplan.jpg The body breaks down the sugars and starches to form glucose, which is what fuels the body for its energy. The insulin carries the blood sugar into the cells. If the glucose is allowed to accumulate in the blood rather than going into the cells, then that is when complications from diabetes come into the picture.

List of Foods for a Diabetic to Eat

The good news is, and this does surprise most newly diagnosed diabetics, you can pretty much eat anything, as long as you are sensible in your food choices. Just like any other diet targeting health and nutrition, things to avoid include:

* Excess sodium
* Excess sugar
* Excess fats (especially the bad fats)
* Excessive cholesterol

Foods you want to include in a diabetic diet include selections from the following groups:

* Fruits and vegetables
* Beans and nuts
* Non-fat dairy products
* Fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meats
* Whole grains
* Healthy fats (plant oils)

Expanding on the List of Foods for a Diabetic to Eat

Taking it a step further, if you want to super boost your diabetic diet, or any other diet for that matter, here are some other items to include on the list of foods for a diabetic to eat:

* Foods high in Omega-3; a favorite among many is salmon, but other fish contains Omega-3, too. Preparation is important; breaded and fried should be avoided. Wiser preparation methods include sautéing, baking, or broiling.

* Tomatoes – whether sliced, sauced, or in a vegetable smoothie, tomatoes provide iron and vitamins C and E.

* Berries – raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries are excellent for providing antioxidants along with fiber and essential nutrients. Want a fast healthy dessert? Place non-fat vanilla yogurt in a parfait glass alternating from bottom to top with yogurt and your choice of berries; mix different types of berries for more color and variety. Sprinkle the top with wheat germ and/or crushed nuts.

* Sweet Potatoes – consider replacing white potatoes with sweet potatoes for a lower glycemic index value. Sweet potatoes are loaded with vitamin A and fiber, and they are easily to bake, or boil in water and mash for a delicious sweet potato casserole.

* Dark Leafy Greens – you can’t go wrong with dark leafy greens such as kale, collards, and spinach, plus they are low in both carbohydrates and calories and provide you with fiber, calcium, iron, and vitamins C, A, and K.

List of Foods for a Diabetic to Avoid

Some of the foods you will want to avoid on a diabetic diet include:

* Sodium, sugar, bad fats, cholesterol
* Fried foods and high fat choices
* White bread, pasta, and rice; opt for whole grain choices instead
* Red meat; opt for fish, eggs, or poultry instead
* Butter; choose healthier plant oils instead (olive, canola, peanut, sunflower)

While a dietician or nutritionist is your best source of advice for helping you with your diabetic diet, the basic information about what foods to eat and which ones to avoid is not so different from what anyone else should eat if they want to follow a healthy diet and prevent many diseases and health problems like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and high blood pressure.



Source by Max Buddenbrock

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms – are you Sure you are not Diabetic

It does not always take a long time for the onset of Type 1 Diabetes. This type of diabetes can form in only a matter of weeks, so it is important that you know the symptoms that will alert you to the need of a checkup by your physician. Since Type 1 Diabetes is a long-term illness, it is imperative in the successful management of the disease to get an early diagnosis.

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

The initial Type 1 Diabetes symptoms can come on strongly and suddenly, and include:

•    An increase in the production of urine caused as the body tries to rid itself of excess glucose in the urine

•    Excessive thirst

•    Weight loss

•    Increased appetite

•    Fatigue caused by the inability of the body to convert glucose into energy

•    Blurred vision

•    Nausea and vomiting

•    Irritability and mood changes

Early Diagnosis and Management of Type 1 Diabetes

The importance of early diagnosis and management of Type 1 Diabetes symptoms is due to the fact that other complications can arise from diabetes that is not treated. Some of these complications can be life threatening, thus the need to quickly seek a medical diagnosis if more than one of the above Type 1 Diabetes symptoms becomes present. Some of these complications include:

•    Retinopathy -this is a disorder of the eyes that occurs when the tiny blood vessels at the back of the eye become damaged by high blood sugar. Early detection and treatment, as well as managing your blood sugar is essential in order to avoid blindness, which can result if this disorder is left untreated.

•    Neuropathy – nerve damage caused by high blood sugar that can lead to pain and numbness in certain areas. Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form and affects the nerves in the legs, feet, and hands. Autonomic neuropathy is less common and involves the nerves that control such body functions as digestion and urination.

•    Nephropathy – damage to the kidneys that is caused by high blood sugar. If diabetes and nephropathy is left untreated, it can lead to kidney failure.

•    Diabetic ketoacidosis – This occurs when the body produces acidic substances called ketones to as a substitute energy fuel that is usually derived from glucose. The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, fatigue, and if left untreated can result in coma or death.

•    Hypoglycemia – This condition can be caused when too much insulin is taken and not enough carbohydrates are consumed to balance out the extra insulin. The symptoms of this condition can include irritability, blurry vision, trembling, headache, sudden sweating, dizziness and weakness, and confusion. If not treated, hypoglycemia can lead to a coma.

•    Atherosclerosis – this condition involves heart and blood vessel problems that result from unmanaged high blood sugar. People who have Type 1 Diabetes are at a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, and other problems associated with poor circulation.

•    Foot problems – foot problems are often associated with diabetes. People who suffer from peripheral neuropathy, which can cause numbness in the feet, often do not notice sores on their feet, which can lead to infection. Sores that are left untreated for a long period of time are at risk for gangrene, which is the death of soft tissue because of a lack of blood flow. This can lead to the need for amputation of the foot, and even the leg or part of the leg.

The Importance of Management

The complications above demonstrate the importance of recognizing Type 1 Diabetes symptoms as quickly as possible. Once a physician has diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes, it is imperative that you find a plan of management that is suitable to you as an individual and treat the disease as a long-term illness that can cause adverse complications if left untreated. Managing your Type 1 Diabetes involves more than just cutting down on the sweets – proper management of your diabetes will include an entire lifestyle change as well as medications in some cases. A healthy lifestyle should always include, first and foremost, a healthy diet along with a regular exercise routine. 



Source by Dr John Anne

Facts About Cornhole


Cornhole is a game that has been played for a very long time now. Though its popularity may have decreased in the recent years, it still remains to be one of the simplest yet very fun games of all time. This game is played by many people in different countries. Many people loved it since it could be played by anyone and can be played in many different places with enough space. The materials used for the game is not that hard to find and can even be made by the players themselves if they want to. It is ideal for different occasions such as birthday parties, team events, and even a regular gathering of friends and family members. Even if you have not heard or tried this game, you can easily learn it. Rules are relatively simple much like other corn toss games and games like horseshoe and washer toss. Children will definitely have a great time playing it as well as adults.

The game is played by 2 opposing players or teams. A special platform is made for this game which is has an angle of inclination of about 45 degrees and has a hole. 2 platforms are placed on opposite sides and a string may or may not connect them together. The distance between the 2 platforms would depend on the players’ preference but they are usually around 15 to 20 feet apart. Each team would have 4 all weather bean bags each which are filled with corn kernels. Players take turn in throwing all their bags. If the bag goes inside the hole, the player who threw it will be given 3 points. If the bag does not go inside the hole but remains at the top of the platform, it is considered as 1 point. If the bag settles at the edge of the platform, the platform is lifted to determine whether the bag stays on top or falls off of it. No point is given if the bag falls off the platform.

In order to win the game, a team must score 21 points. A round is over when each team throws one bag each. In a round, the total score that is given to a team is the difference of the points gained by each team. For example in round 1 team A scored 3 points and team B scored 1 point, 2 points will be awarded to team A for that particular round. This game is usually played in a lawn but it could also be played in other venues which have sufficient space. It is great for team building activities and parties as well. It would also be ideal if you want to pass time with your friends.

Cornhole is a type of game that will be loved by future generations. Though it is old and simple, it is very fun to play. It is a great alternative to video games and it is also a way to have quality time with people who are special to you.



Source by William G. Steinmetz

Custom-engineered protein destroyed the deadly virus in the lab; could become a sweeping anti-viral in medicine and farming — ScienceDaily


In June 2012, a 60 year-old man with flu-like symptoms walked into a private hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Two weeks later, he died from multiple organ failure, becoming the first victim of a mysterious virus that came to be known as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified MERS as an urgent threat with no vaccine or treatment in sight. This could change thanks to a new anti-viral tool, developed by University of Toronto researchers.

Writing in the journal PLoS Pathogens, the team led by Professor Sachdev Sidhu, of the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, describe how they turned ubiquitin, a staple protein in every cell, into a drug capable of thwarting MERS in cultured human cells. Because the technology can be applied to a wide range of pathogens, it could become a game-changer in anti-viral therapeutics with implications for human health and the farming industry.

“Vaccines are important for prevention, but there is a great need for anti-viral medicines to treat people who have become infected,” says Dr. Wei Zhang, a postdoctoral research fellow in Sidhu’s lab who did most of the work on the study.

MERS is similar to SARS, the virus that killed almost 800 people in a 2002 global epidemic. Both kill upwards of a third of people infected and, like many viruses, emerged from animals — bats and camels in the case of MERS — after mutating into a form capable of infecting human cells. Although MERS has so far been detected in 27 countries since the first case emerged in 2012, the outbreak has largely been contained within Saudi Arabia, according to the WHO.

Like many viruses, MERS works by hijacking the ubiquitin system in human cells composed of hundreds of proteins that rely on ubiquitin to keep the cells alive and well. Upon infection, viral enzymes alter ubiquitin pathways in a way that allows the virus to evade the immune defense while multiplying and destroying the host tissue as it spreads in the body.

“Viruses have evolved proteins that allow them to hijack host proteins. We can now devise strategies to prevent this from happening,” says Zhang.

Zhang and colleagues engineered the human ubiquitin protein into a new form that paralyses a key MERS enzyme, stopping the virus from replicating. These synthetic ubiquitin variants act quickly, completely eliminating MERS from cells in a dish within 24 hours.

The researchers also created UbVs that blocks the Crimean-Congo virus, the cause of a haemorrhagic fever that kills about 40 per cent of those infected.

And they’re designed to only target only the virus — hopefully minimizing side effects in any future drug.

But before these engineered proteins can be developed into medicine, researchers first must find a way to deliver them into the right part of the body. For this, Zhang and Sidhu are working with Dr. Roman Melnyk, a biochemist in The Hospital for Sick Children and a world expert in protein delivery.

The team is also investigating the possibility of finding drugs that work in a similar manner but can already cross the cell membrane.

It is likely that the proteins will be tested first in plants and animals where regulatory approvals are less strict than they are for human drugs. “We are also working on an engineered ubiquitin that targets a corn virus responsible for destroying large swaths of corn fields in North America, with colleagues in Manitoba,” says Zhang.

In the meantime, Zhang will continue to improve delivery of his designer proteins to human cells that target not only MERS but also other viruses. He hopes others will follow suit.

“With our tool, we can quickly generate anti-viral medicine and we hope that our method will inspire other researchers to try it out against diverse pathogens,” says Zhang.

Story Source:
Materials provided by University of Toronto. Original written by Jovana Drinjakovic. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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Types of Diabetes(type 1, Type 2 and Gestational)

Types Of Diabetes

In medical parlance, this disease is known as “diabetes mellitus” – diabetes from the Greek word for siphon, to illustrate the excessive thirst and urination, which is characteristic of this condition, and mellitus from the Latin word for honey – as urine of a diabetic person contains sugar and is sweet.

Commonly, this disease is called diabetes.

There are many types of diabetes, but the three most common are:

« Type 1 diabetes
« Type 2 diabetes
« Gestational diabetes

1. Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin dependent diabetes):

This is an autoimmune disease where the body’s own immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. It can appear at any age, although mostly under 30 (very often in childhood or during teens), and is caused by environmental factors such as viruses, diet or people genetically predisposed. This type of diabetes, is also known as juvenile-onset diabetes.

It is not really known what causes type 1 diabetes and it is not caused by eating too much sugar or sweets.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop over a short period, although beta cell destruction can begin much earlier. Common symptoms include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme weakness. If not timely diagnosed and treated with insulin, a person with type 1 diabetes can go into life-threatening diabetic coma, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis.

2. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes):

This is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of all diagnosed people. It is also known as late-onset diabetes, and is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes is genetic in origin, but other factors such as excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, ethnicity and faulty diet are its major risk factors. Symptoms may not show up for many years, and by the time they crop up, considerable harm may have been done to the body.

In this condition, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for reasons unknown, the body cannot use the insulin effectively – termed as insulin resistance. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make proficient use of its main source of energy.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop gradually. Symptoms include weakness, nausea, frequent urination, excess thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow healing of wounds. Some people may show no symptoms.

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive, lifetime condition; and over time, it may be difficult to keep the blood glucose level in the target range. However, good diabetes care and management can prevent or delay the onset of complications.

One can do this by:

« Eating healthy meals and snacks

« Following regular physical activity

« Taking diabetes medications (including insulin), if prescribed.

3. Gestational diabetes:

Gestational diabetes develops only during pregnancy. In most cases, all diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 20 to 50 % chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years, especially if they were overweight before the pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes is not caused by a lack of insulin, but by blocking effects of other hormones (estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen) on the insulin that is produced, a condition referred to as insulin resistance. Normally, the pancreas is able to make additional insulin to overcome insulin resistance. However, when the production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results.

Carbohydrate intolerance is diagnosed during pregnancy through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). While the carbohydrate intolerance usually returns to normal level after delivery, the mother has a significant risk of developing permanent diabetes later on; while the baby is more likely to develop obesity and impaired glucose tolerance and/or diabetes later in life.

Risk factors include a family history of diabetes, increasing maternal age, obesity and being a member of a ethnic group with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The complications of gestational diabetes are usually manageable and preventable. The key to prevention is careful control of blood sugar levels as soon as the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made.
Other types of diabetes –

4. Diabetes insipidus:

Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition, that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood. The anti-diuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin) controls the amount of water conserved. Diseases of the kidney (for example, polycystic kidney disease) and the effects of certain drugs may also cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
The common symptoms are excessive urination and extreme thirst.

5. Syndrome X:

Syndrome X, also known as the “metabolic syndrome” or “Insulin Resistance Syndrome”, is a condition that is linked to an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease.

It is characterised by abdominal obesity, elevated levels of triglycerides, low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol, high blood pressure and high blood sugar levels. Other symptoms include smoking, high fat and calorie diet, pre-diabetes or Type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome.

This is more common in older people than in younger people. In addition, women were more likely to have the syndrome than men.

For diabetes information, Diabetes Testing, diabetes treatment, diabetes causes visit www.diabetesmellitus-information.com



Source by Tom alter

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