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What Are the Various Types of Wounds Responsible for Causing Tetanus?

Besides roadside injuries, tetanus may occur from various wounds caused by cuts, especially while working in fields / gardens, or when a deep punctured wound occurs in the case of mechanics engaged in various factories / workshops, etc. Tetanus may also manifest itself in patients with bed sores, or wounds caused by splints, or in cases of burns, skin ulcers or, following tooth extraction. It may be due to gunshot wound as well. A simple pinprick, injury by nail, thorn may also cause this problem. Fishermen may also suffer from it when they get an injury while handling the fish-hook. Frost-bite can also prove dangerous in some cases.

Tetanus may appear when injections or intravenous drips are given without proper sterilization. It is usually seen when drug addicts do not use properly sterilized needles / syringes.

The disease is known to occur when the wound is a tiny one, which can hardly be seen and is completely forgotten / healed. In such cases, the patient did suffer from an injury sometime or the other.

Sometimes tetanus breaks out even in the wards of hospitals. It happens when the various materials used are not adequately sterilized. As already mentioned, tetanus spores are highly resistant in nature, and require very high temperature for sterilization / autoclaving. Boiling. for at least 4-5 hours is required to eliminate these spores. In operation cases, tetanus spores get free from the unsterilized material, eg cat-gut, gauze, cotton, etc., the wounds caused by the operation serve as the portals of entry for tetanus spores, and their further germination into vegetative forms, which are responsible for the secretion of the toxin.

A pregnant woman may also become the victim of tetanus by a wound caused during labour / child-birth. It usually happens when the woman has not been properly vaccinated against tetanus during her period of pregnancy.

Newborn babies may become infected, as a result of tetanus, when the cut ends of their umbilical cords, or any other injuries, they have suffered during their birth, have not been properly treated, with the result that such wound / s get infected by tetanus spores.

Tetanus may also develop in cases of ear discharge (otitis media), when the tetanus spores which may be present in the discharge of the ear, gain entry into the body through perforation / s in the ear-drum of these patients. Such cases are called 'otogenic tetanus'. This is of great importance, because such cases usually remain ignored till they get tetanus. This calls for energetic treatment of the prevailing disease of the ear, as well as urgent vaccination against tetanus usually, these cases have not been vaccinated for tetanus earlier. Cases of otogenic tetanus are not uncommon. The author discussed such cases in one of the issues of Current Medical Practice. The disease is more common among children, and the parents should have the requisite awareness about this disease.

Source by Krishan Bakhru

The Truth About Chronic Head Lice

Head lice are a common problem amongst children, and even adults. They do not need to be however, as there is a relatively pain free method to curing a chronic head lice infestation and ensuring they never return.

If you want to get rid of head lice quickly, then you need to follow these three steps:

1). Discover the source of the infestation.

2). Break the life cycle.

3). Ensure they never return.

This article will lay this method out so you can cure your infestation in the shortest time frame possible.

To control chronic head lice, first you must ascertain where exactly the lice are coming from, and ensure your child is protected when in that situation.

It is a common misconception that head lice can be caught from furniture, bedding, clothing and car seat covers. This is unlikely, as they very rarely leave the human head. This is because it spells almost certain death, so they rarely, if ever do. Head lice are most likely only contracted from an infested friend, usually at school, playgroup or kindergarten.

The next step is to break the head lice life cycle.

Head lice live for around 33 days, 6-7 of which is spent as a nit attached to the hair shaft. Most treatments will not kill the nits, so extra effort is required to get rid of them. The nits are extremely difficult to remove, and if just one hatches, the infestation will start all over again. This is why it is important to treat again after 7-8 days, to ensure you kill any nymphs that hatch in this period.

Once you have taken these steps, it is recommended to treat one more time, another 7-8 days later. This will ensure you have killed them once and for all.

Once you have eradicated all live lice and eggs, it is important to make certain they never return.

There are many ways to prevent head lice, the most popular ingredient for this being tea tree oil. You can add a few drops to the conditioner you use, as long as it smells strong enough to overpower your own natural scent. You then essentially become invisible to them, as head lice will not transfer to anything other than another human.

So now you have the knowledge required to cure chronic head lice once and for all, go forth and conquer! You know where they come from, you now just need to break the life cycle and prevent them from ever returning. It may take some persistence, but if you follow this three step battle plan, you will soon be living lice free, forever!

Source by Susan Thomas

Children in Vietnam Need Your Help

Impoverished children in Vietnam need your help to overcome the effects of poverty, ill health, lack of schooling, unmet medical needs, and unsafe drinking water. Vietnam, a country of 86 million, is desperately poor. The per capita income in 2008 was $1,024, and 21 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line (US $1.25 per day).

Children under age 5 have a mortality rate of 19 per 1000 live births (compared with 7.6 for the USA). Thousands of children live in orphanages. A number of charitable and relief organizations are at work in Vietnam, but still much remains to be done to alleviate suffering.

Areas needing attention are nutrition, basic health, fresh (safe) water, aid to handicapped, school tuition for children, and support of poor families.

Problems associated with unsafe water are particularly serious. Fresh water in rivers and streams in Vietnam is often a source of cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, and amoebiasis. Tragically, unsafe water is also beginning to cause cases of poliomyelitis, eliminated long ago in the United States. Safe fresh-water wells can be placed in operation for as little as $700 each.

Poor children in Vietnam also need charitable assistance if they expect to go to school, since families must pay tuition for them to attend.

Charities at work in Vietnam believe that the children of today, particularly those who are orphans or who have been abandoned, need extra help to grow and to become productive members in Vietnamese society. Most charities devote 90 percent or more of contributions toward programs to directly aid children.

Contributors to charities that benefit Vietnamese children often include American veterans of the Vietnam conflict and naturalized Vietnamese-Americans. Others include religious groups and individuals who wish to do something positive to alleviate the plight of orphans.

Source by Gary Jacobsen

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, The White Cell Cancer

Many types of cancer are known our days, but Hodgkin’s disease is one that can be cured if the medical advice and treatment is followed properly. Hodgkin’s disease, named after the physician that identified it, is cancer of the lymphoid tissue. First of all this disease affects the immune defense system, leading to a weak organisms’, unable to fight infectious particles found in human bodies.

In some cases lymphoma develops in organs like stomach or intestines, but mostly in the lymph nodes or the lymphatic tissue.

Two types of lymphoma are known: Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Hodgkin’s disease affects especially old people that are over 60. The malignant cells developed by Hodgkin’s disease are also known as Reed Sternberg cells.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a disease that affects people with weak immune system, and people exposed to the virus called Epstein Barr. It affects people of any age, but most of the cases are seen at old men past 60.

Enlarged lymph nodes and unexpected weight loss are first symptoms for Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and for the confirmation of the disease the possible patients should go to a physician. The procedure of illness determination involves a microscopic watch at a sample of the lymph node tissue.

Depending on the stage when it was discovered, this disease can need a complex or a less complex treatment in order to guarantee patients recovery or even life. In advanced stages lymphoma can be discovered not only in lymph nodes, but almost anywhere including patches of lymphatic tissue or, as I said before, in organs like stomach or intestines.

Lymph nodes are located in different parts of the body including the neck, the chest and groin, and the armpit.

Lymphocytes are divided in two groups: B cells and T cells, each one of these groups with different functions.

The B cells or B lymphocytes are meant to produce immune cells. When an infection is found the B cells change in plasma cells that stick to the infection and secretes antibiotics.

The T cells or T lymphocytes come to destroy antigens or infected cells.

The B and T cells are part of the normal lymphocytes, but the cause for Hodgkin’s lymphoma the malignant or lymphoma lymphocytes. These cells can divide slowly or rapidly. Either way they cause lymph nodes or other organs to enlarge, depending on their position.

The lymph glands or any other organ, even if we talk about the stomach or intestines, are surely going to be affected by a large group of malignant lymphocytes, making unpleasant consequences unavoidable.

Source by Groshan Fabiola

Reactive Arthritis – Known As the Immune System Arthritis

Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the immune system, which is “reacting” to the presence of bacterial infections in the body. It is a chronic form of the disease and it manifests itself in three conditions. First, the presence of swollen joints, then the swelling of the eyes, called conjunctivitis, and finally, the inflammation of the gastrointestinal, the genital and the urinary systems.

Reactive arthritis occurs when the immune system is exposed to a certain bacteria. Some people have immune systems that behave erratically after coming in contact with some forms of bacteria. The erratic behavior of the immune system causes the inflammation of the eyes and joints.

Not all people are vulnerable to reactive arthritis. Genetics play a significant role in the contraction of this disease. The latent reactive arthritis gene can be triggered by external factors, such as a bacterial infection.

However, the symptoms of reactive arthritis can be categorized into two groups: those affecting joints and those that do not.

This disease can cause joints, such as the wrists, knees, ankles and feet, to become inflamed. The affected joints are usually located in one side of the body, but not in both. The symptoms also include the classic manifestations of common arthritis, like joint pain, stiffness, redness and warmth. The fingers of patients are also usually swollen, causing the appearance of “sausage digits.” The spine and neck can also become inflamed and may become painful and stiff.

The tendons, which connect muscles to bones, can also become swollen and may be painful when moved.

Restrictive arthritis also hits non-joint areas such as the eyes, urinary tract, skin, genitals, mouth, large intestine and even the aorta. These areas can become irritated and may cause pain and discomfort. There can be an irregular swelling of the iris and the white area of the eye, called iritis and conjunctivitis, respectively. Iritis can be extremely painful and it causes the patient to become visually sensitive to bright lights. On the other hand, conjunctivitis does not cause pain.

The urinary tract, which includes the urethra, the bladder and the prostate, can also be affected by this disease. Urethritis, or the infection of the urethra, is characterized by a burning sensation during urination and the excretion of pus from the penis. The penis itself could also be inflamed. Both the bladder and prostate too may become inflamed.

The skin is also affected. Small liquid-filled blisters can appear of the skin of the patient, particularly on the palms and soles. Cold sores, which are open and painless, may also appear on the patient’s mouth, specifically on its linings and on the hard palate.

Diarrhea can also occur, due to the inflammation of the large intestine. Pus or blood may be present in the stool.

This disease was formerly called Reiter’s Syndrome or Reiter’s Disease, in honor of German military physician Hans Reiter. However, the disease’s name was later changed because of Reiter’s connection with the Nazi and his infamous experiments in Nazi camps.

Source by Bernice Eker

Using Colon Cleansing to Get Rid of Parasites

The parasites have been troubling all the living being on this planet, including humans. Since years, parasites are considered as little monsters that eat up internal organs and take-up all the nourishment that rather should go to the body. Parasites can affect anyone at any age; however, children are the main sufferers.

Parasites, primarily, may not seem to be very harmful to any of the body system since they really take time to show their features. Parasites when get into the human body, they first find a location (here, we talk about locating onto the intestinal walls) and then start the source of nourishment. They nourish themselves with the blood and food available within the bowels. Over the times, parasites start interrupting the digestive system and when parasites / worms are large enough in number, they really make the system failure.

One should therefore perform colon cleansing to get rid of parasites since the colon cleansing therapy is the most effective way to approach the intestines locally. Colon cleansing is performed in a various ways, the herbal colon cleansing, being the most innocent though effective and so widely adopted one. When the intestines are provided with certain herbs that possess natural colon cleansing properties, they get rejuvenated and hence are toned up. The gluey material, stuck onto the intestinal walls is also expelled out with feces and intestines feel new life.

There are some special herbs that have natural anthelminthic properties and hence, they have been widely prescribed to cleanse the colon to get rid of parasites. Herbs like Emblica ribes, Butea monosperma, fenugreek seeds, papayas etc are good to use in colon cleansing as natural herbs to get rid of parasites / worms. Bitter melon, cloves, apple cider vinegar etc are also considered to be good for treating various parasite infestations. Some of the naturopaths suggest taking pineapples (preferably raw) for about 3 days to get rid of parasites from the intestines.

Another way to treat parasite infestation in the intestines is to cleanse the colon with Ozonated water and hydrogen peroxide as a part of the treatment called as colonic irrigation or colon hydrotherapy. The tincture of garlic, pomegranate or pumpkin seeds has also been a favorite combo for many naturopaths and holistic healers to treat parasites' infestations in the intestines.

Along with colon cleaning therapy for parasites, one must follow certain diet and a particular regimen to eliminate the infestation. Sugary foods, sweet foods, dairy foods, too spicy foods and fermented foods are to be strictly avoided since they all are trigger factors for parasite infestation, especially in the intestines. One should keep proper hygienic condition in and around the anus and one should wash anal region with disinfectant body-wash lotion or simply soaking the body in the lukewarm water added with the decoction of herb known as Neem works many times. Neem is considered to be one of the most effective disinfectants, especially for worms / parasites. Taking Neem's decoction internally (however too bitter taste) can cleanse the colon effectively. One can also go for natural Neem capsules that are available in the market.

Source by Ryan English

Steam Rooms and Health – Do They Affect Yeast Infections?

If you want to know the effect of steam rooms to the health on yeast infection then this article is for you. This article will discuss about the connection of yeast infections and steam rooms. This idea is based on an email from a reader. She has a couple of questions. She wants to know if sitting in a steam room or sauna affects yeast. She loves to go to the gym and enjoy sitting in the steam room or sauna three times a week. However, she does notice that after she has been in the steam room or sauna, her candidiasis acts up.

She also wants to start a yeast-free diet. She is wondering where on the internet that she can get the list.

If you have a similar situation as her, here is my opinion on it. For the yeast-free diet, you can go to the site of William G. Crook, who wrote The Yeast Syndrome (which is a really great book). The book has a very comprehensive diet plan. I’m sure it will do good for you.

Whenever you take hot, steamy showers for too long, if many of your symptoms start acting up, I speculate that maybe it is because your house has a lot of mold and it gets in the steam.

Also, if your tap water is chlorinated, the heat of a hot shower allows chlorine gas to be given off in small quantities. You inhale the chlorine while standing in hot shower. If you have an intolerance to handle chlorine which many in the candida/compromised immune system do, you will feel bad when you get out of a long hot shower. Get a good filter for shower head and you may solve your problems with hot showers.

Source by Angie Lindsey

Girls – A Secret to Understanding Men & How to Create an Easy Loving Relationship

Guessing what your man is thinking can become one of the eternal agonizing quests of women. This is because men are not usually able to voice their feelings and emotions.

In her book “The Female Brain” (New York Times Best Seller) Dr Louann Brizendine reveals the science of men and women’s hormonal wiring:

Women are hormonally wired to love, foster harmony, be nurturing, create community and be emotionally sensitive to others. To be happy they need environments where they feel understood, safe and emotionally secure.

Brizendine writes that men, on the other hand are hormonally wired to fight, hunt, protect, be competitive and aggressive. None of that fits with a women’s wired desire for harmony, deep love and emotional safety.

Opposites Attract

So what to do? How can guys and girls live comfortably with each other when they are wired at opposite ends of the spectrum?

When a woman begins her journey ‘searching’ for a partner to co-habit with her, she could be subliminally looking for a ‘soft’ man, a caring person – perhaps the opposite to males she has so far experienced in her life. ‘Softness’ is her term for ‘non-aggressive’.

If she has been surrounded by strong assertive males in her family, or recent relationships she will probably be longing for the opposite, especially if those ‘strong’ males hurt her heart or completely missed her needs for love and empathy.

Pros & Cons of a ‘Soft’ Man


Finding a ‘soft’ man is great from the point of view of finding a partner who may be able to notice her feelings and emotions, who may be more able to notice his own feelings and express them easily, and who also likes harmony.

However, if the ‘soft’ person has leant too strongly to softness without internal depth and stability they might be prone to depression, low self esteem and passive covert (subliminal) emotional manipulation (due to their lack of internal empowerment). There you go…. Another mine-field to watch out for.

OK, let’s look now at the opposite dynamic.

If a woman has spent a recent phase of her life (family or partners) engaging with ‘soft’ men who lacked empowerment, worldly skills, financial acumen, go-get-it energy, creativity or clarity – she is likely to search for that masculine clarity in strong men. The kind of man who knows what he wants, stands for his rights, is vocal about his preferences and leads.

Pros & Cons of a ‘Strong’ Man

Usually ‘strong’ assertive men are not easily aware of their own hidden depths. They are usually more connected to their careers, their pursuits, their physical expression, their hobbies or businesses. Their inner worlds are often left behind in their quest for the ‘hunt’ and winning – something.  

A woman who has a ‘strong’ man for a husband or partner can easily become part of the ‘furniture’… something the man has ‘won’ and ‘owns’.

It might sound brutal, yet it’s true. Trophies in a strong man’s life can abound. Bank accounts, big toys, desirable women, deals and recognizable wins. A strong man’s self esteem can often be based entirely on external markers. A bit like a male dog leaving a trail of urine to mark his boundaries.

This may sound unkind – yet men and women are more ‘wired’ hormonally and from millennia of genetic engineering than we may think!

Sahara Desert of Emotion

So, a woman can easily find herself left on the emotional shelf. Her deep need for emotional engagement, safety and emotional security can feel like the Sahara Desert and be tragically not fulfilled in her relationship. Yet she may continue to love – because she is profoundly, genetically wired to do that.

It takes a lot of emotional destructiveness to stop millions of years of genetic design. Yet finally, a woman, maybe after years of a dry desperate heart, may give up.

And, from my point of view, this is a tragedy.

One of the reasons this is a tragedy is because with not much effort, through being shown how to use her natural intuitive sensitivity in a specific way, a woman can easily observe exactly what her man is feeling, his hidden fears, his hidden needs and his hidden attitudes.

How To Create An Emotional Connection

To create emotional connection and a sense of safety, all most women want, is to know what their man’s needs are – and his fears.

As soon as they know his fears and vulnerabilities women tend to react compassionately and caringly. They, again, are wired to do this!

It can switch on their love again! No longer are their hearts afraid, sad, disconnected from their partner. If the love for their man or partner is still in their hearts, learning the true needs of their lover quickly re-fires their feeling to contribute, give and love.

The Enormous Value of “Understanding” Each Other

Understanding creates harmony. Mis-understanding creates hurt and fear.

So when a man cannot express his feelings, fears, needs or vulnerabilities (and that’s most men) a woman loses touch with her function in the relationship – which is to love. Love heals – and intuitively women often love their partners to help heal their man’s love-starved or wounded hearts.

So here is a powerful piece of information.

When a woman understands her man’s fears, hidden needs, sadness or wounds – she is often triggered to help out. This can switch on her love.

Another powerful piece of information is this: men LOVE TO BE LOVED.

They may never say so. They may even not know they need to be loved (most don’t).Yet deep down it is often a FOUNDATION NEED in them.

So when a woman UNDERSTANDS her man’s hidden needs, and wants to love him to heal his honest real need for love – both get what they want and need.

Women love to love – and men love to be loved.

However, this dynamic depends on a woman UNDERSTANDING her man or partner.

Women: Learn To Use Your Intuition – In A Smart Way

I recommend women becoming more ‘intuitive’ and learning new specific intuitive skills that these days can easily be learned through on-line or convenient tele-class training.

Most women are intuitive and can learn to instantly ‘read’ below the surface of their partner’s logical mind.

As a spiritual advisor and intuitive, I’m aware of easy mind tools that most women would find simple to follow, yet which reveal the true hidden depth of their partners. These tools involve simple visualizations that create an instant ‘snapshot knowing’ of what the other person is feeling below the surface.

Such simple intuitive skills, in my opinion, need to be accepted passionately by women, because it is a natural part of their ‘wiring’.

My suggestion is for any woman who would like a satisfying, harmonious, happy long-term relationship to learn these skills. They are GOLD.

Happiness has no price on it. It is the only thing we all long for. It is the deepest driver over staying alive. Loving someone easily and successfully brings a kind of  happiness that touches our deepest soul.

Understanding your partner opens the heart and helps love flow between you. Men love being loved. Without them realizing it (often) they begin to soften, relax and not be so driven.

And women love to love. Yet it is only when they harmonize with their man through understanding him, that they feel emotionally safe enough to love him.

In my experience (33 years) most women are fascinated with their own intuitive abilities and enjoy learning smart ways to use them. So learning HOW to accurately use this natural part of their female sensitivity – their  intuition, to immediately understand their men, can create the priceless gift of a happy, committed, loving relationship.

Alicia Power

Soul Coach & Author: “Psychic Scan E-Book”

Source by Alicia M Power

How to Get Rid of a Pungent Feminine Smell – Cure Your Fishy Odor at Home Today

When your vagina produces a fishy scent, then something is wrong with your body and you need to take action now. Allowing an infection to worsen in your body, especially in your most private area, can cause some serious damage to you. You want your body to be clean and healthy and you are ready to make that happen.

You want to know how to get rid of your pungent feminine smell so you can feel more comfortable about your body today. You don’t want to hide away from everyone anymore and you are ready to face this odor and infection and combat it once and for all.

Bacterial vaginosis is the term for the problem that you are currently facing. It differs from a yeast infection in that the only symptom you experience is the foul odor. If you aren’t having any itching, irritation or cloudy urine, then the only problem that you need to treat is the smell. Bacteria inside of the vagina cause this smell and you just need to work towards getting rid of that smell.

The easiest way to get rid of pungent feminine odor is with natural treatments. The reason why they are so effective and great to use is because you can start doing them right now and you don’t even have to leave the house. They are safe for your body and they don’t leave you with many side effects.

A great way to fight off this odor is with parsley. Most people have some parsley around the home because it is used for cooking. It is also great for getting rid of bacterial vaginosis. We know that parsley can cure bad breath odor and it can actually do the same for vaginal odor. Insert a leaf of parsley into your vagina and it will kill the odor causing bacteria leaving you feeling fresh and clean. This is a simple way to fight off the odor and you won’t have any side effects from it.

Another way to stop vaginal smell is to wash more frequently. Keeping the area clean and safe from more bacteria speeds up your healing time. With any infection on your body, you take great care of it, insuring that it is constantly clean. You need to do the same with your area down there so the infection doesn’t worsen. Even though you may be tempted to use a fragrant soap to cover up the smell that will just make things worse. Make sure to use a non perfume soap so you can still cleanse the area without irritating anything.

Source by Michelle Jacobs

Protect Your Pet From the Giardia Parasite

Giardia is a parasite that infects the intestines of animals. They are seen to affect domestic animals as well as farm animals. Once in the intestine of the host, it prevents the host’s body from absorbing nutrients. Symptoms of this disease include loss of appetite, reduction in weight, depression, diarrhea and vomiting.

Since it can cause considerable damage to health, you have to take steps to prevent this parasite from infecting your pet. The first thing that should be done is maintaining a clean environment. This prevents the parasite from getting into your area and infecting your pet. In this context, it is important to clear the area that is surrounding your home completely.

Remove feces of all animals in the vicinity of your home by thorough cleaning everyday. This is of high importance to pet health as one of the main sources of spread of Giardia is through feces.

Do not allow your pet to drink water from just about any source of water. This is important to follow, particularly when you are planning to take your pet to some outdoor location. You should give your pet the same water that you drink and should never allow them to drink water from a pond or lake, no matter how clean the water and the surroundings appear.

Disinfect the area around your pet using a solution of bleach with water. Make sure that this is a highly diluted solution, as bleach can cause considerable health problems. Apply it to areas such as kennels, runs and food bowls, so that they are all properly sanitized.

Source by Pauline Go

Viral Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is a terrible problem because there is hardly anything that you can do about it besides wait for your symptoms to reside. Food-borne illnesses can be caused by viruses, parasites, and bacteria that come to inhabit improperly handled or prepared food as well as contaminated water. Viral versions of food poisoning can be caused by noroviruses, rotavirus, and hepatitis A.

Noroviruses, often called the "stomach flu," is a highly contagious food-borne illness that often infects people who live in highly populated areas, such as cruise ships. This is why noroviruses have been called cruise ship illnesses, as well as caliciviruses and Norwalk-like viruses. These are the most common cause of food poisoning in adults.

It typically shows up with the common food poisoning symptoms of abdominal pain, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a low fever. Thankfully, this typically goes away in two to three days.

This virus is carried by feces, so shellfish and vegetables that are grown in water that is contaminated with norovirus-carrying feces can they themselves become contaminated.

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of food poisoning in infants and children. It causes vomiting followed by diarrhea and fever which can be moderate to severe. Because the vomiting and diarrhea can quickly cause a child to become dehydrated, which can be dangerous, children that are admitted to the hospital with diarrhea are almost always tested for this disease. Like noroviruses, rotaviruses are transmitted in feces, so food that is grown or prepared with fecal-contaminated water is at risk for carrying the virus.

Another fecal-transmitted disease is hepatitis A. Instead of the typical stomach pain and diarrhea caused by food-borne illnesses, hepatitis A can leave you feeling tired. Additionally, you make experience fever and a loss of appetite, followed by the onset of jaundice. Jaundice occurs because hepatitis in an inflammation of the liver, which is in charge of filtering the blood. When the liver is attacked by hepatitis A, it loses its ability to filter the blood as effectively. Thus, a substance called bilirubin can build up in the skin and eyes, making them appear yellowish.

Typically, doctors will try to manage your symptoms and prevent you from becoming dehydrated since there is no one treatment to solve hepatitis A. Generally, you must wait for the illness to subside on its own unless you have other liver conditions.

If you or someone you know has become infected with a food-borne virus, you should hold the negligent party responsible for allowing your food to become contaminated with fecal matter. More information For, talk to a product liability lawyer from Haralson, Miller, Pitt, Feldman & McAnally, PLC, today.

Source by Joseph Devine

To People Who Want To Make The Law Of Attraction (LOA) Work

In using the law of attraction to help manifest your desires, many coaches focus on what you should do, placed minimal emphasis on what you should not do to repel what you have tried to attract to you.

In this article, learn the 4 things you should avoid to ensure success with the law of attraction.

Weak Vibes, Ambitious Goals: Manifestation become more challenging as your goals gets higher. And for those with inherently weak vibes, the law of attraction just doesn’t work no matter how hard you try.

What can you do? Start with simple and easy goals. Progressively move to more difficult ones. The key is to strengthen your vibes by engaging LOA on a regular basis.

There is a faster and easy way to over come this – turn to the magnetic power of crystal to accelerate the manifestation process. Read on and I’ll show you how.

Your Experience, Your Pitfall: Your life experiences maybe the invisible wall that stood between you and your desire. Maybe you want to be rich and you try to attract more money into your life. But since young, you parent told you rich people are evil.

Is your belief system in or out of alignment with what you want? The Universe will only work with those who tune to the frequency of what they desire.

A quick way to know is to ask silently what you want, and watch how your body respond to the request. If you experience some form of discomfort somewhere in you, you are out of alignment. Keep modifying what you want till the uncomfortable feeling go away. Reword so that your subconscious mind accept it as a possibility.

Believability is the key.

Lack of Emotional Fuel: Your emotion is the fuel to onset the attraction process. Are you passionate over what you want? How do you feel when you ask for what you want? Do you feel relaxed, happy and fulfilled, or are you emotionless?

But here’s the irony: Regardless of what you hope for, if you harbor the feel of lack, you are just going to attract more lack and repel what you want.

Watch your mood.

Unrealistic Expectation: Just because we live in the internet age, we expect everything to happen instantly. Ever heard of warp speed manifestation? I don’t. And I don’t think you do, because such thing doesn’t exist.

When I teach people how to engage the law of attraction using the power of crystal, it never fails to amaze me how impatient we are.

I engage the law of attraction in a slightly different manner. I use crystals as the magnetic tool to help me, and I teach people how to do it.

Once I received a mail from a student. She commented: “it doesn’t seem effective.” This lady student was trying to attract love into her life, but to begin with, she has not even completed the manifestation course.

Get real. It’s time to know that things don’t always happen overnight.

Avoid these 4 things if you want the law of attraction to work for you.

Source by Glen Lim

Prostate Specific Antigen And Prostate PSA Levels

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the USA This cancer can only occur in men, because the prostate is part of the male reproductive tract. Men over the age of 50 are at the highest risk to develop this cancer and prostate cancer is responsible for more male deaths of any other cancer except lung cancer.

Discovering prostate cancer most often happens during a physical examination. Another way the cancer is found is through blood tests, such as the PSA. PSA is an acronym for prostate specific antigen. PSA is an enzyme produced exclusively by prostate cells. A small amount of PSA is continuously leaked into the bloodstream by prostate cells. This allows for the measurement of a PSA blood test.

For men 60 and younger, the normal PSA level is up to 2.5 ng / ml. For men older than 60, the range is 4.0 ng / ml, because the prostate usually enlarges and makes more PSA with age. A prostate cancer cell can produce 10 times more PSA than a normal cell. As the cancer cells multiple, more PSA is released into the bloodstream, causing the PSA blood test to have a result above the averages within a man's age bracket.

Average Prostate Specific Antigen of Men with Prostate Cancer:

The average prostate specific antigen is 7.2 ng / ml, however there is a wide variation. Men can be treated for cancer with a PSA as low as 0.3 ngl / ml and as high as 430 ngl / ml. Fifteen percent of men have a PSA below the "normal" range of 4.0 ng / ml. Men can be classified into four PSA groups based on his PSA.

– Group 1: Up to 4.0 ng / ml

– Group 2: 4.1 ng / ml – 10.0 ng / ml

– Group 3: 10.1 ngl / ml – 20.0 ng / ml

– Group 4: Above 20.0 ng / ml

Example: I am a 64 year old with a PSA of 6.3 ng / ml:

In general the amount prostate PSA levels in the blood are an indicator of the amount of cancer present in a man. More PSA usually means more cancer. A PSA of 6.3 ng / ml places this man in a PSA group of 4.1 – 10.0 ng / ml. This prostate specific antigen level would suggest this man has slightly less cancer than the average prostate cancer patient.

Connection between PSA and the Amount of Cancer Present:

Some prostate cancers will not produce a lot of PSA. These instances are called low PSA producing cancers. Low PSA cancers can fool doctors. Some of the most advanced cancers are low PSA. For this reason a PSA blood test can not be used as the only indicator of if a man has cancer. The PSA is a good indicator of the amount of cancer that is present, but the test is not perfect. Your doctor should be conducting other tests and also determining your Gleason score to better determine if cancer is present and if so, how severe it is.

The most important information in this article is to become educated about prostate cancer. Once you have learned about the cancer you will be better prepared to make a decision about treatment and your doctor. It is not difficult to learn about this type of cancer and about the treatments performed by each type of doctor. There are many different ways to treat prostate cancer, so it is critical you spend time to learn about all of them. With limited exceptions there is only one shot at being cured, so take the time to make an informed decision.

Source by John Critz

What is Ringworm?

Ringworm, also known as Tinea, has nothing to do with worms, but is a fungal infection that can occur anywhere on the body. On the skin, it is generally characterized by a slightly raised, usually red or brown colored patch of skin, with a light center, forming a ring shape. A ringworm infection on the scalp will usually cause a bald spot with scaly skin.

Ringworm affecting the scalp will start as an itchy bump that spreads, causing scaly skin that may also cause hair to fall out in the affected area. Ringworm affecting the fingernails will cause the nails to turn white or yellow and brittle.

It is important to note, though, that not all ringworm infections cause a ring shape, and not all ring shapes are caused by the ringworm fungus. A physical examination by a medical professional can confirm the presence of ringworm.

Tinea is the medical name for a group of related skin infections, including athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. These infections are caused by fungi called dermatophytes that live on the dead tissues of the skin, hair, and fingernails.

The parasitic fungus that causes ringworm thrive best on skin that is warm, moist and hidden from light. It is very common, especially among children and is contagious – it can be spread by direct contact between humans and animals. It can be passed from human to human, and also from animal to human, just by physical contact.

To contract ringworm, you have to be exposed to it, and you also have to be susceptible to it. Some people are more susceptible than others, and generally children are more susceptible than adults. Ringworm starts as an itchy ring on the skin, and can actually cause skin lesions on other parts of the body. These lesions are fungus-free and generally disappear after treatment of the fungal infection.

Treatments can be purchased without a prescription, and usually contain antifungal medication. The itching and scaling that occurs with the infection, though, can interfere with the medication, so you can use creams that contain hydrocortisone to help with the itching. Most ringworm infections clear up within a week or two with treatment.

A fungal infection underneath fingernails or on the scalp can be difficult to treat, and often require oral medication rather than a topical cream.

To prevent ringworm, it is suggested to not share clothing or towels, shower after contact sports, and keep your skin clean and dry. It may also be necessary to continue topical treatments for two to four weeks after the fungal infection disappears.

Source by Tonia Jordan

10 Best Places To Retire? The Where?

And what do you look for when choosing a place to retire?

Is it affordable housing?

Plentiful leisure activities & cultural interests?

Job growth opportunities?

Sunny weather? Sandy beaches? Clean air & surroundings?

Tantalizing gourmet haven?

Easy commute system?

Fast & hassle-free health care access?

I think all of the above would be what you're looking for.

If you're pondering on a place to retire to, I would say go for a place with thriving economy that offers all or almost all of the above-mentioned "goodies" to make your retirement lifestyle relaxed and carefree.

I've researched and studied quite a few places that have the above-mentioned "goodies" and I think they can be good candidates for you to pick as one of your 10 best places to retire.

The list's not exhaustive though and you may have other preferred places …..

  1. Sarasota, Florida
  2. A famous Gulf Coast spot. It's home to some of the most splendid architectures you can imagine. It's also famed for its more than 30 miles of beautiful beaches and a climate that's perfect for boating, water skiing, tennis and golf. Nature lovers will bask in the fine ambience of pure white sands, exotic birds and plants. Culture loving folks would love the operas, ballets and theatres here. It is not a big city but it sure has an urban feel, thanks to the first rate entertainment.

  3. Ames, Iowa
  4. It offers a real American midwest living. It's also home for big-name musical acts and touring theater groups. It lures you with very affordable housing. And low crime area too. Life's quiet and calm here, just the way you might like it.

  5. San Diego, California
  6. If you treasure sunny weather and crisp sea air, San Diego is the place with beautiful weather and white, sandy beaches plus crisp clean air. Want an active lifestyle (busy with seas and beaches)? The breathtaking beaches and the famed Balboa Park are a few of the places you can go to for play and entertainment. This town reigns as one of the most competitive in the fields of electronics, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. You need to spend a little on housing, though. San Diego does not come cheap.

  7. Lawrence, Kansas
  8. Lush surroundings and attractions such as shows at the Lied Center, an active community arts center and theater, a vibrant downtown and a longtime farmers market, are this town's alluring trademark. Enough spots to go and activities for you to participate, if you yearn for an active past time.

  9. Hot Springs, Arkansas
  10. It's famed as a spa resort. But what would also attract you is its low cost of living. And it's a good bargain in terms of housing costs – for instance, a single-family house (from 1,600 to 2,100 square feet) averages $ 135,000 to $ 225,000.

  11. Charleston, South Carolina
  12. The south is one of the best places to retire to. Charleston, in the south, is a lovely town where you get to enjoy lots of activities within a thriving economy. It's been dubbed a historic, romantic and beautiful town. But one snag – you got to put up with the summer heat.

  13. Hanover, New Hamsphire
  14. A colonial enclave famed for its cross-country skiing that's among the best you can find. The town's also known for its ivy league living.

  15. Anacortes, Washington
  16. A haven for water lovers. Its crown jewel is Fidalgo Island, a hop, skip and a short sail to British Columbia. It offers plenty of water-recreation activities like sailing, kayaking and power boating. You can also go for other things like golfing, camping, bird watching and beach combing. It's historic downtown boasts specialty shops, antique stores and art galleries plus bed and breakfasts and gourmet restaurants.

  17. Walla Walla, Washington
  18. If you want a quiet lifestyle where people know one another, then this is the place for you. You can escape the rat race and find peace and tranquility with its offer of bookstores and art galleries. The local colleges offer lots of activities such as lectures and classes for retirees. And if you're used to big city prices, you'll get nice, affordable surprised bargains here.

  19. Charlottesville, Virginia
  20. This town's blessed with the rugged and picturesque Blue Ridge Mountains and also a fine blend of colonialism and 18th-century ideals. It would go down well with a relaxing retirement lifestyle: playing golf in serene surrounding; taking part in refreshing water sports; browsing through the book stores and antique shops …..

Take your pick among these top 10 best places to retire.

Or you've other places in mind?

Well, as long as the place has what you want, it's your best place to retire, I would say.

The most important thing – you must love the place and enjoy your life there.

Source by Cecelia Yap

Neem – The Magic of Mother Nature

Neem is an herb that has been a great assert to human species since thousands of centuries. Neem is extremely useful to humans and this is the reason it is being worshiped in India and is considered as the place where Gods resides. It is said that no evil sprits dares to come near a neem tree and this is the reason neem is a part of every Indian house.

Neem has huge tree that attains a height of 40 to 50 feet. Leaves are small and of green color. Bark is brown in color with cracks on it. Its trunk is light brown to yellow in color from inside. The leaves are bitter to taste. Fruit is small and round in shape.

Age old science ayurveda has mentioned numerous benefits of neem. Each and every part of neem tree is being used and it has lots of health benefits. Below are the some of the benefits that neem possesses.

· Antiseptic and anti-microbial – it is the best agent to suppress any kind of infection that occurs in our body. The powerful action of neem does not let growth of any microbial as well as parasite to grow. This property of neem was known to ayurvedist in India thousands of years back. They used it extensively to provide cure to people so as to treat them from infections that was the major cause of death in those times. The compound knows as azadirachtin is the agent that provides the anti microbial as well as antiseptic properties to neem. Various researches conducted on neem has proved that azadirachtin is the compound that inhibits the growth to microbial and other organisms, even the insects. For this reason, neem is planted in every house in India as no insects propagate on it and no insects like mosquitoes roam around this tree. This act as a protection shield that save people from disease like malaria and filariasis. Some other compounds like salanin, meliantriol and nimbin also adds to the properties of the neem. It is also used in agricultural field for protecting the vegetation from pests.

· Arthritis – neem has a good power to act as anti-inflammatory agent and also relives from pain caused in the joints. It helps in reducing the swelling from the joint and also decreases the pain threshold that is caused in arthritis. It is preferred over other anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents like aspirin or ibuprofen as it does not cast any side effects of abdominal disturbances in our body. It has been proved scientifically that neem has an excellent effect in reducing the inflammation and decreasing the pain without having nay adverse effect on our gastrointestinal tract. As per the researches, the polysaccharides present in neem nurtures this property of reducing the inflammation in the joints.

· Oral care – neem has been extensively used in India to maintain the healthy oral cavity. It keeps our teeth and gums healthy and strong. Since prehistoric times neem twig (datun) has been used extensively to clean teeth and also preventing any kind of infection in oral cavity. It has now been scientifically proved that neem is helpful in preventing tooth decay and bleeding from gums.

· Diabetes – neem leaves are bitter in taste. This property of neem provides it to act as an anti-diabetic agent. It helps in stimulating pancreases to stimulate insulin production and also helps in proper absorption of nutrient and sugar in the body.

· Heart diseases – neem is very helpful in treating the heart related problems and also improve the circulation of blood in the body. The extracts of the neem leaves is highly recommended in reducing blood clotting, blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and heart ailments. Neem is also helpful in treating arrhythmia and angina.

· Skin related problems – neem is the best agent that is very useful in treating any kind of skin related problems. The main reason for occurrence of any skin ailments as per modern sciences is the infection. Neem, as stated earlier also is very beneficial and effective in suppressing any kind of infection n the body. As per ayurvedic view pint skin related ailments are caused due to aggravation of pitta dosha in the body. Neem is helpful in decreasing the pitta in the body, there by fading the skin problems. Neem can be used for oral use also as well as for local application on the skin problem.

Source by Dr John Anne

Detect a Hookworm Infestation in Your Dog

One of the most common irritants a dog owner is going to have to deal with outside of fleas is that of the hookworm. Hookworms are an extremely common dog parasite. Their method of infection (as with most parasites) is rather unique, the symptoms that they give are obvious and the prevention of hookworm infestation is an ongoing battle. The solutions to a hookworm infestation are relatively simple however, and a hookworm infestation should not be the cause for alarm.

Hookworms are bloodsuckers. The hookworm larvae are tricky. The larvae are found in the feces left behind by an infected dog. They hatch in about a day and can live for many weeks on the ground without any sustenance. Technically, all your dog has to do is brush up against an active larvae it will do the rest. One method of infection is that the larvae will bore into the dog through the skin and work its way to the lungs. In the lungs, the larvae becomes a juvenile hookworm. The parasite is then coughed up as mucous and re-swallowed into the stomach where the infection can really take hold, with the parasite's attachment to the intestinal wall. Hookworms are extremely thin, almost transparent worms that can get to be about a half of an inch long. They are basically a hose with teeth suck nonstop.

Hookworms can either get into the dog through the penetration of skin (usually through the foot) or they can be ingested. But in truth there are several different ways a dog can become infected with this common parasite. The most interesting is that an infected mother can pass the parasite onto her unborn through the placenta. Even more disturbing is that a mother infected with hookworms can pass the parasite off by nursing her young.

Most commonly, the eggs are passed out of an infected dog through its feces, and then the infection starts over again with a new host. Hookworms are prolific. A pack of 300 worms in a dog can severely drain a dog's blood supply and cause weakness due to anemia, or even death.

Several symptoms can reveal the presence of hookworms in your dog. A bloody or tar-like stool is definitely a sign that something is wrong. Your dog also might be vomiting or not demonstrating its normal appetite. There can also be weight loss and a general lethargy. Hookworms drink your dog's blood, so anemic behavior is what should be paid attention to. Gums that are not pink and wholesome looking are a sign of potential hookworm infestation. Hookworms move quick, and signs of an infestation can happen as soon as 10 days after contact.

Interestingly enough, eggs do not show up in the feces until several weeks after infection. The stool sample can even be taken to the vet early in the hookworm's intestinal career and come back negative. So your pet might be acting slightly off, but there is no real way of being able to tell until the eggs show up. Unfortunately, hookworm eggs are not visible to the naked eye. A vet can determine them for you. When the eggs do start showing up, there is no real way to determine how thick the infestation is based on an egg count. The reason why is that hookworms are some serious egg layers. One worm can lay up to 20,000 eggs a day. However, a vet is going to recognize other signs and be able to make the proper hookworm determination.

It is a good idea to do a fecal floatation test with a vet twice a year to determine if there are any parasites within your dog's system. A fecal floatation test is basically a test that a vet performs with your dog's feces that can determine all sorts of different parasites, not just hookworms.

There are several deworming products available over the counter that can eradicate this pest. Hookworm treatments only kill the adult worms. In order to guarantee complete eradication, multiple treatments are necessary. Extreme cases of hookworm infestation might even require a blood infusion.

A basic deworming product like the 8in1 Safe-Guard Canine Dewormer is something that can do the trick. There are many, many different products out there that are over the counter that will handle hookworms. Also, over-the-counter deworming products are relatively low-priced. A product can be picked up at your local pet store for about six dollars.

Hookworms are such a common pest that the idea of ​​getting your dog dewormed should not be over-reacted to. While their process of infection is kind of unusual, the solutions to hookworms are rather simple. If one pays attention to their pet, and is diligent when they see signs of lethargy or illness, a full-blown hookworm infestation is going to be something that the average dog-owner will be able to avoid.

Source by Peter Demmon

Hoverflies – Ten Facts About These Misunderstood Insects

Hoverflies are part of the Diptera (meaning two wings) order of the Syrthidae family of insects. They can be brightly coloured, can have spots, bands or stripes, whilst others have dense hair covering their body. They are known as Hoverflies due to their hovering ability. They look like bees or wasps, but are in fact flies and they do not sting.

They are avoided by predators because they resemble wasps and bees; an excellent example of mimicry. Hoverflies also taste nasty, another reason why other predators leave them alone. There are about 250 species of hoverfly in the United Kingdom, whilst there are at least 6,000 species worldwide. They are found on most continents – except Antarctica. Due to the differences in their appearance, they can be difficult to identify.

  1. The Marmalade Hoverfly is one of the most common species to be seen in the United Kingdom. It can be identified by the double stripes on its abdomen.
  2. Hoverflies only have one set of functional wings; the hind wings are only there to help with balance. Wasps and bees have two pairs of wings.
  3. All species of hoverfly larvae have different feeding habits – some are saprothophs, meaning they eat decaying plants and animals, whilst others are insectivores, meaning they devour insects such as aphids and such.
  4. Hoverfly larvae can look like little slugs and can be usually found near stagnant water.
  5. Adult species of hoverfly eat pollen, nectar and honeydew – a sugar rich substance that is secreted by aphids and other sap feeding insects.
  6. Hoverflies can be seen in your garden from March until September, although this does depend on the species. The male hoverfly will emerge earlier in the season to mature first, to ensure successful reproduction.
  7. A Hoverfly can be identified by its controlled hovering, along with its rapid stop-start darting around. It also has a ‘floating’ vein that runs straight through its wing, but ends before it reaches the edge of the wing.
  8. The main difference between the male and female hoverfly is their eyes. The female has smaller eyes, whereas the male’s eyes are larger, closer together and almost meet in the middle.
  9. The hoverfly species that eat aphids and other insects, are often used a natural pest control method for this very reason.
  10. Gardeners can plant certain plants, known to attract hoverflies, to ensure that they are attracted to their garden. These plants include Alyssum, Parsley and Chamomile.

Source by Sarah PJ White

Influenza – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Influenza is commonly known as flu, it is an infectious disease of birds that can cause by RNA viruses. It is a contagious respiratory illness that is caused by influenza virus. Actually it is a viral infection that affects throat, nose, bronchi and in some cases it also affects lungs.

Influenza is a serious disease and every year about 5% -20% of United States population infected by this disease. Sometimes, more than 200,000 of people are hospitalized as they are having infection of influenza. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies and people with certain chronic illnesses. The influenza even has its own season generally from November to April, with most cases occurring between late December and early March.

Symptoms of influenza

The infection is sometimes confused with common cold but its symptoms are more severe than typical sneezing. Infection of influenza lasts for about a week and sometimes more. It is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, muscle ache, feeling chills, body ache, headache, severe malaise, sore throat, rhinitis and non-productive cough. Dizziness and loss of appetite is another cause of influenza. Sometime vomiting, weakness and ear pain can prove associated symptom of influenza.


The flu virus travels in air droplets when any infected person sneezes. One can easily inhale these droplets and affected by disease. You can even pick up the germs by sharing things with the infected person such as telephone, towel, computer keyboard etc.


The main thing to keep away from flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Whenever you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. You can do some practical ways to prevent the spread of influenza. You should wash your hands frequently and thoroughly. Do not pick up the used tissues as this may lead to infection. Never share utensils and towels with infected person; infection may travel through this way. You should cover your nose and mouth at the time of sneezing as the inflectional bacteria travels in the air and can cause another person.

Source by Dr John Anne

Dog Bite Treatment

Dog bites can be traumatic and painful experiences that can leave both physical and emotional scars. However, as long as adequate, timely and appropriate treatment is given in the majority of cases the prognosis is excellent. Although there aren’t any exact figures about 60-90% of bites are caused by dogs and between one third and a half of bites occur in children. In 70% of these cases the victims are bitten by their own dog or a dog they are familiar with. According to one report, in the UK, you are more likely to be killed by a lightening strike than you are from a dog attack!

First Aid for bites:

Before you begin to treat the victim make sure that the situation is safe for you and the victim. Make sure that the dog is not around by either taking the victim away or getting the owner of the dog to remove the dog and either chain it up or shut it up away from you. You should try to find out the name and address of the owner, the breed and immunization status of the dog if possible as this may be useful if further treatment or action is required.

Try to stop the bleeding but only use tourniquets as a last resort for severe bleeding that can’t be controlled in any other way. If possible keep the injured part elevated above the heart to control the bleeding.

The mouth carries many bacteria which can cause infection in a wound so it is vital to clean the wound thoroughly with boiled, cooled water for 5-10 minutes. Running water is preferable otherwise soak the area in water that is frequently changed (you should wear gloves while you do this to protect yourself).

Don’t apply antibacterial lotions on an animal bite as some bacteria in saliva can actually proliferate, or reproduce quickly in a short interval, in certain creams. Some may also damage the skin tissue and healing.

Apply direct pressure to the wound with a clean cloth. Dress the wound with a non-adhesive, sterile gauze and bandage. Watch for signs of infection, if they develop up to 48 hours after the bite you should see your doctor. Bites, by definition, break the skin which allows bacteria from the saliva in the animal’s mouth to seep into the open wound and can result in infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is normally given. Prophylaxis is a Greek word meaning an advance guard; in medical terms it means a measure is taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of a disease or condition.

If any parts are actually torn off during an attack (such as an ear) then you should wrap the part in clean tissue paper, store it in a plastic bag surrounded by ice and take it with you to the hospital.

Signs and symptoms of infection:

  • Pain around the wound
  • Redness
  • Tenderness
  • Swelling
  • Pus or discharge
  • Fever
  • Swollen glands

First Aid for infections:

The wound should be covered with a sterile bandage leaving the area surrounding it visible so that you can monitor signs of spreading. Try to keep the wound elevated and supported. See your doctor as soon as possible to prevent further complications.

The risk of infection is particularly high in punctures, hand injuries, full thickness wounds, those needing surgical debridement, and wounds involving joints, tendons, ligament and fractures. Also infections are more likely if the wound is deep or dirty, or if there is a lot of blood under the wound.

Certain factors make some people more vulnerable to infection:

  • Diabetes mellitus. (Increases the risk of Pasteurella infection)
  • Alcoholics. (Increases the risk of Pasteurella infection)
  • Cirrhosis or liver scarring.
  • People on steroid therapy. (Increases the risk of Pasteurella infection)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. (Increases the risk of Pasteurella infection)
  • Lymphoedema after radiotherapy. (Increases the risk of Pasteurella infection)
  • Asplenia which is the absence of normal spleen function.
  • Wounds more than six hours old.
  • Devitalised tissue.
  • Previously sutured wounds.
  • Full thickness wounds involving tendons, joints or ligaments.
  • Bites on limbs especially the hands.
  • Those with compromised immune systems due to drugs or illness.

Pasteurella is a bacteria found in most animals. If a wound is infected by these bacteria then the wound becomes red and inflamed, this occurs rapidly: within 24 hours and there is significant pain and swelling. Occasionally it can cause pneumonia or other respiratory infections; very rarely it causes kidney infections or meningitis. If it is treated promptly with antibiotics then the prognosis is good. However if any infection is left untreated then it may spread to the bloodstream causing blood poisoning, or cause swelling, stiffening of the joints and tissue damage.


Scarring. In children, dog bites frequently involve the face, potentially resulting in severe lacerations (cuts) and scarring.


  • Such as tetanus, rabies, septicaemia, septic arthritis, tendonitis, peritonitis, meningitis and osteomyelitis which is infection of the bone.
  • Wound infection occurs in 2-30% of dog bites.
  • Infections from bites are polymicrobial, (more than one species involved) often including anaerobes which can survive without oxygen. Common bacteria include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Eikenella, Pasteurella, Proteus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Entrobacter, Capnocytophaga, Canimorsus and Bacteroides.



If you sustained the bite abroad then you may be at risk of rabies. At the moment the UK is largely free from rabies (although some bats carry the disease in the UK), but it is common in Africa, Asia, Central and South America and some cases have been reported in Eastern Europe. Rabies is a serious illness that can be fatal to humans so if you are bitten or scratched abroad you should seek immediate medical attention even if you don’t think you have contracted anything-rabies is virtually undetectable in the early stages. You should contact the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infection or Health Protection Scotland. Staff will need to know:

  • Your previous vaccination status
  • The country where you were bitten
  • The site and date of the bite
  • Whether the attack was provoked or not
  • Whether it was a domestic or feral dog
  • The current health of the animal if this is known.

The treatment to prevent rabies developing is called post-exposure prophylaxis and it involves 1 dose of rabies immunoglobulin (this is a blood product which contains antibodies against rabies) and 5 doses of rabies vaccine. If prophylaxis is required, it is usually obtainable from these centres as is the rabies vaccine (which is injected into the muscle) and the human rabies immunoglobulin.

Hospital Treatment:

About one in five people who are bitten by a dog seek medical attention, of those only 1% require hospital admission.

Some bites can be particularly serious and require more attention than just first aid. Also injuries can be more extensive than they appear especially puncture wounds as these are small but deep and can damage tendons or joints. Wounds can be quite complex as bites can involve sheering forces: the dog embeds its teeth into your skin, you react by pulling away and the skin tears. You should see your doctor if:

the bite is on:

  • the hand,
  • the foot,
  • a joint,
  • a tendon,
  • a ligament
  • the scalp,
  • the face,
  • the ears,
  • the nose,
  • You require antibiotics; you will also usually need admitting to hospital.
  • You think an infection has developed or is likely to develop.
  • You have bleeding that doesn’t stop after 15 minutes of direct pressure
  • You think you have a broken bone or nerve damage
  • You are not up date with your tetanus vaccine
  • You were bitten by a dog with unknown immunisation status

When you see a doctor they may ask for the following information:

– Breed of dog. This is particularly important as a bite from a larger dog is more likely to damage deeper structures such as tendons or bone.

-Health status of the animal

– Time and location of the event

– Circumstances (i.e. a provoked or unprovoked attack.)

– Location of the animal now

– Any pre-hospital treatment

– Any factors which are likely to compromise immunity such as HIV or steroid therapy

– Any recent antibiotics (if infection is present in a patient taking antibiotics then this may suggest the infection is caused by a resistant organism)

Your wound should be washed with a normal saline or drinking water to remove the dirt and bacteria. If the wound is contaminated then a 1% providone solution is used as it is better than saline. The providone is diluted so it is germicidal but not toxic to the tissues. If you have not been immunised against tetanus within the last 5-8years then a booster shot is usually administered. However contracting tetanus from a dog bite is rare.

Sometimes debridement is required which involves medically removing dead, damaged or infected tissue, either by surgical, mechanical, chemical or autolytic (self-digestion) means. Dead or damaged skin needs to be removed because it is an ideal place for infection to develop. Also debridement helps to remove any blood clots or foreign bodies that might be lodged in the wound. Cleaning the wound and debridement is more important than medication in many cases.

Once the wound has been properly cleaned then primary suturing (stitches) may be performed. This is particularly good for facial wounds as there is an excellent blood supply to speed up healing. Gaping wounds may need to be stitched, glued or held together with steri strips. Suturing can help to prevent scarring and improve the cosmetic outcome. However some wounds may be left open for a few days to ensure that they aren’t infected before they are closed up. Delayed closure for 3-5 days is usually done in cases where the bite is on the hand, those with extensive crush injuries, wounds that need considerable debridement and wounds that are more than six hours old. During this time they should be covered with a sterile, non-adhesive dressing to prevent any more bacteria entering the wound and causing infection.

Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection and should provide protection against Pasteurella bacteria, anaerobes and staphylococci. At first this may be given intravenously through a drip into a vein. Antibiotics are useful for:

  • All wounds after primary closure
  • Puncture wounds
  • Large wounds
  • Bites to the hand and wrist. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduces the risk of infection in bites on the hand, but they may not be as effective for bites elsewhere.
  • Bites on the face
  • Crush wounds with devitalised tissue
  • Wounds that required surgical debridement
  • Wounds involving joints, tendons, ligaments or fractures
  • Dog bite injuries to genitals
  • High risk patients such as those with diabetes, those with compromised immune systems, splenectomy, those on chemotherapy, splenectomy, artificial heart valves, rheumatoid arthritis and those with prosthetic joints.

In mild infections co-amoxiclav is usually prescribed as a first line of treatment. However, antibiotics are not usually needed for bites that are 2 days old and aren’t showing signs of infection: infection has normally developed by this time if bacteria are present.

Source by Fox Harrison

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